Walter Gropius Antoni Gaudí i Cornet
Walter Adolf Georg Gropius is a leading German architect of modernism . One of the four great masters of modern architecture (along with Le Corbusier , Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe ). He was the founder of the world-renowned educational institution (school) " Bauhaus " and was the first principal from 1919 to 1928.
[3 MIN GREAT ARCHITECTURE / 3 minutes of famous architecture] Bauhaus Dessau / Bauhaus Dessau school
[File shoe factory of Agusu]
1903 - 1907 in Munich learned architecture at and the Technical University of Berlin. After graduating, Peter Behrens entered the office of ( 1908 - 1910 ), where they met with Mies van der Rohe. He also participated in the Deutscher Werkbund. The 1911 work, GreCon's Last , was an early modernist architecture using iron and glass reminiscent of the later Bauhaus school building. The building that had a major impact on the design of the Fags plant was the AEG turbine plant designed by Peter Behrens. Kropius and Meyer worked together on the project, providing an interpretation and critique of the work of their teacher, Verence.
Both factories have in common the corners without stanchions and the glass stretched between the piers up to the top floor, but the turbine factories have heavy elements covering the corners to separate the interior. The glass curtain wall also separates the interior and is fitted between the convexly protruding peers to invert. The cargo is narrowed and the building has stability and a monumental exterior.
Fags has exactly the opposite design. The corners are open, and the curtain wall is exposed to the front, so the pier is slightly recessed and inwardly rolled. Gropius himself described this shift as follows: "The role of the wall is limited to just a screen , stretched between the upright pillars of the frame to prevent rain, cold and noise." During the design of Fags, Gropius was a member of the Deutscher Werkbund . He was collecting photographs of American industrial architecture for publication. Those American factory designs were the source of inspiration for Gropius when designing the Fags.
[ Bauhaus School building ]
When the National Bauhaus was merged in 1919 and opened, Gropius became the first principal. Initially, it aimed at architectural education as a comprehensive art, but it became a place for avant-garde modeling education by Kandinsky and others. "Interior of the Principal's Office of Weimar Bauhaus" ( 1923 ) is a space unified by modern design and is regarded as a monumental work. World has established a framework for the first time a "modern" design in art school is. The school could have existed for 14 years until it was closed by the Nazis in 1933, but its unique and advanced activities at that time had a great influence on contemporary art. 19 century rich in decorative up to historicism architecture Unlike such as, for the design artists of the Bauhaus was created is very reasonable and simple design, mechanical mass production was suitable for. Then, in the flow of modernism pursuing product rationality that occurred in the early 20th century due to the Industrial Revolution , the Bauhaus design method also expanded explosively while repeating derivation. Until the modern, concrete and steel buildings, IKEA popular for furniture design and of such, the user interface of the grid layout and flat design , such as a large number of products have come used the same technique and the Bauhaus in. In addition, in the Internet society, self-portraits and collages of photographs posted on SNS etc. are also the basis of the origin of Bauhaus. There are also block toys that can be said to be the originator of Lego. Therefore, it can be said that the design pursuing rationality invented by Bauhaus has become so common that modern people do not need to be aware of it.
" Bauhaus School Building " ( 1926 ) was designed by Gropius and became known around the world as a masterpiece of modernist architecture along with his book "International Architecture" (1925, Bauhaus Series Volume 1). In addition, at the request of the city of Dessau, an apartment house ( Ziedorung ) was built in the suburbs. Siedolung is a German settlement . It is also famous as a term that refers to an apartment building built in Germany during the Weimar Republic era. From the latter half of the 19th century, urban problems such as the concentration of population density and the occurrence of slums became serious, and inspired by the garden city concept of the United Kingdom , apartment houses were built in various parts of Germany in the 1920s. These plans are to Bauhaus , such as modernism of architects participated in many people, architectural history on is also being evaluated as the practice of modern architecture movement. In 1927, a housing exhibition was held in Weissenhof, a suburb of Stuttgart, sponsored by the Deutscher Werkbund, and various experimental houses were built. It also affected Dojunkai apartments and public housing in Japan. 2008 in Berlin part of the Berlin Modernism Housing Estates as a World Heritage Site has been registered as.
I was invited to Harvard University and went to America. I raised IM Pei , Philip Johnson and others here. In addition, a joint design office TAC was established. We designed the skyscraper Pannam Building. MetLife Building Is a skyscraper in Park Avenue 200 , New York . Formerly known as Pannam Building. Even in his native Germany after World War II, he has had the opportunity to design. First, in 1952, he participated in an international architectural exhibition held in the Hansaviertel district of Berlin, realizing high-rise housing. Furthermore, in the 1960s, in the Neukolln district in the south of Berlin, he designed a large-scale suburban residential area called Gropiusstadt, which has an area of 266 ha and is lined with apartment buildings. Pan Am has owned this building for many years, with the "PAN AM" logotype on the north and south sides of the building and the Pan Am trademark globe logo on the east and west sides. It was a symbol of Pan Am's prosperity, which was a leader in the world aviation industry.
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