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​National Kenkomi Architectural Design Institute
​World Architectural History III

Diverse society (architect-centered architecture)

Postmodernist architecture Deconstructivist architecture Reductionist architecture

​~ The beginning of the 4th architecture ~
​Chapter 2 Metabolism

Metabolism is an architectural movement started in 1959 by a group of young Japanese architects and urban planners such as Kisho Kurokawa and Kiyonori Kikutake. Taking the name of the group from metabolism (metabolism), we proposed cities and architecture that grow organically in response to social changes and population growth. The future cities they envisioned responded to the pressure of Japan's population growth at the time of high economic growth and the rapid renewal and expansion of cities. They believed that the "machine principle" that supports the conventional fixed form and function is no longer effective, and that the "life principle" that changes space and function will support future society and culture. In the urban and architectural plans of Kisho Kurokawa and Kiyonori Kikutake, innumerable living units are inserted into huge structures such as tall towers and maritime cylinders, and they become old and function as if old cells were replaced by new cells. It was envisioned to respond to and promote the growth and change of society by replacing the entire unit, such as a room that does not fit, with a new unit. The work of the Metabolism group, which tends to be oriented towards urban megastructures, was often described as technical bureaucratic. The origin of the Metabolism group is in the late 1950s. When CIAM (International Conference on Modern Architecture), which has led modernist architecture , was not held at the end of 1956 and ended in 1959, a new group Team X (Team Ten) by young members of CIAM emerged, and the world Inspired the young architects of. Young Japanese architects also interacted with and were influenced by them. The World Design Conference was scheduled to be held in Japan in 1960, and the architects involved in the planning of this conference (Takashi Asada , Kiyonori Kikutake , Kisho Kurokawa , Masato Otaka , Kenji Ekuan) , Kiyonori Awazu , Fumihiko Maki ) and Noboru Kawazoe , an architectural critic, formed a group to discuss the future of architecture. At the World Design Conference, they announced their first declaration, "METABOLISM / 1960-Proposals for Cities," a huge city that grows and metabolizes, such as "Marine City," "Tower City," and "Shinjuku Terminal Redevelopment Plan." Showed off the idea. Their idea was to propose a concrete future society, and referred to not only architecture but also philosophy and other modern civilizations. These megacity plans did not come true, but individual members applied the idea to architecture. Kisho Kurokawa's Nakagin Capsule Tower Building (1972) is one example. At the 1970 Osaka Expo , they were jointly involved in venue planning and architectural planning. At the end of the Osaka Expo, their activities diverged.

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