National Kenkomi Architectural Design Institute
World Architectural History III
Diverse society (architect-centered architecture)
Postmodernist architecture Deconstructivist architecture Reductionist architecture
～ The beginning of the 3rd architecture ～
Chapter 6 Conversion
To regenerate an existing building by changing its use. Historical buildings have been demolished around the world and continue to this day. Architects who sympathize with the movement to protect the world's architectural heritage have made efforts to repair and utilize the heritage of the past without destroying it.
◆◆ Carlo Scarpa
Italian architect An architect who has been active mainly in the renovation of old buildings in the Veneto region. The way to modernize the context of the moment is based on his deep insight. He interacts with Wright and Khan and has many followers in Japan. Italian architect. Born in Venice, he focuses on the renovation of old buildings in the rich culture of the Veneto region. While using materials such as concrete, stucco, and metal, the design has a timeless newness with a delicate and sharp sense of the environment and the substances that make up it. The method of modernizing the context of the place is based on deep insight, interacting with people such as Wright and Kahn, and has many followers in Japan.
■ Brion Cemetery Tomba Brion
Carlo Scarpa Fernanda Snyderbauer Scalpia's masterpiece of architecture, Brion Mound, through the eyes of Guido Gudy. 118 shots by architectural photographer Guido Guidi.
The master of photography, the master of architecture and the lens seen through the eyes of college. This is Guido Guidi's personal exhibition "With Time-Around Carlo Scarpa", which traces the wonderful attachment of Emilia photographers to one of the 118-shot architect Carlo's most important works found at the Via Satterna Gallery in Milan. is. The exhibition, curated by the Phantom Group, presents clear and rigorous work by Gidi, an architectural photographer born in Cesena in 1941, between 1996 and 2006. Gidi went to Brion's tomb for 10 years and took pictures regardless of season or time. During the day, grasp the changes in light, color and shadow projected on the brutal walls of the building as the weather conditions change. .. In honor of the modern movement as well as the passage of time, Guidi pays homage to another series of shots taken at Le Corbusier's Usine du Bar in Saint-Dié-des-Vogues, France. The exhibition, which runs until November 27, is an interesting opportunity to rediscover some of the elements of Scalpian's poetry and production that made the great Venetian architect one of the great masters of 20th century architecture. .. The value of the work lies in its expression. When things are well represented, their value is very high ». Invisible Boundary Feeling Boundary From non-existent to sophisticated "innumerable line architecture" that feels existence It seems that there is no boundary in this architecture, and everything is deeply connected. One line is transformed into a myriad of lines, creating invisible boundaries.
A hollow world that emerges as a mirror surface.
■ Castelvecchio Museum
After being bombed by German troops during the withdrawal, they arrive from a completely reconstructed bridge after the war and access the fortified courtyard. The path is instinct. Suddenly, the line of sight shifts from one subject to another, which is directed at the sculptures of Cangrande de la Scala and other works of art exposed to the outside. We will do everything possible. It's 30 meters long, and in this space you're looking around in silence. By the time you reach the entrance, it feels like something is rising. This sensation is due to the vegetation that declines as we progress.
Inside the Castelvecchio Museum We enter a building restored by Carlo Scarpa between 1958 and 1974. The rooms are arranged like any other museum. But the windows, lamps and artwork stands were all devised by Carlo Scarpa's genius. The floor is not directly connected to the wall so that it does not get in the way. Space is left in case the wall moves around or your imagination cannot stabilize it.
The arch acts like a filter from room to room. The main beam seems to divide the roof into two parts and show the path to follow.
The entire exhibition runs smoothly, and a series of beautifully designed spaces will guide you to the top of the surrounding walls, losing words.
◆◆ Brochet Lajus Pueyo
■ Orangerie Museum
Impressionist and Post-Impressionist museums in Paris , France. "Haystacks," "Rouen Cathedral," "Poplar," and "Water lilies." Monet's art, which began with "Impression, Sunrise," was exactly the quest for "light." Monet, who was in danger of blindness in his last years, repeatedly drew the subtle nuances of sparkling light and water lily flowers on the surface of the water while fighting the fear of losing the "light" that is the life of his art. That is why the museum that decorates the completed Dalian work "Water Lily" needed bright "light".
However, the original Orangery "light" was lost in the renovations of the 1960s. It was renovated into a double-decker building to expand the exhibition space, and the "water lily room" was deprived of natural light. In addition, the foyer was destroyed and a large staircase leading to the new exhibition space was installed at the entrance, blocking access to the "Water Lilies Room" and making it difficult to visit the entire museum.
The renovation, which began in 2000, erased the traces of this 1960s renovation from the museum and rebuilt the "Water Lilies Room" as Monet envisioned. First, remove all the second floor that was blocking the outside light to the "water lily room". In addition, the large staircase at the entrance was removed and the foyer was revived to facilitate access to each exhibition room. In this way, "Water Lilies Room" succeeded in regaining the charm of the space as Monet envisioned, enjoying the world of the Dalian work "Water Lilies" while the natural light pours from the glass ceiling.
◆◆ Gae Aulenti
■ Musée d'Orsay
The building of the Musée d'Orsay was originally a railway station building and hotel at Orsay Station , which was built by the Orleans Railway to coincide with the 1900 Paris World Exposition. The designer Victor Laloux ( 1850 - 1937 ) is. Originally, Orléans station was a terminal for long-distance trains heading to Orleans and southwestern France, with more than 10 lines of platforms underground under a semi-cylindrical roof (train shed). Due to its small size and inconvenience, it became a short-distance train station in 1939, and the station facilities were significantly reduced. After that, this building was used for various purposes, and there was talk of demolition at one time, but from the 1970s the French government began to consider conservation and utilization measures, and 19th century art was renovated by Italian female architect Gae Aulenti. It was reborn as a museum to exhibit. Thus, in 1986, the Musée d'Orsay opened. The central hall of the museum uses the atrium structure of the train shed of the underground platform as it is. Inside the building, the remnants of what used to be a railway station remain everywhere. Nowadays, it seems that it has become a well-established tourist attraction in Paris. All the collections of the former Impressionist Museum ( Jeu de Paume ) have been taken over by Orsay.
The House of policy, as a general rule the February Revolution was the 1848 from the First World War broke out in 1914 are going to exhibit work up to, the earlier work the Louvre , and later The work is divided into roles called the Pompidou Center (of course, there are some exceptions). Not only paintings and sculptures , but also a wide range of 19th century visual arts such as photography , graphic arts, furniture and crafts are collected and exhibited.
◆◆ Giorgio Raineri
■ Turin Archives Archivio di Stato di Torino
Spreads in individual spaces. Although acoustically disconnected, each channel acts as the voice of the overall composition and is not completely audible. The sound of an infinite, dense, swirling harmonic drone fills each hole with a kind of resonating silence, creating a spatial experience that challenges the parameters of the visual impression. A variety of sources are used in the production process, including sinusoidal oscillators, prepared harps, tuned bottles, and flutes.
◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron
■ Tate Modern
1952 Power plant → 2000 Renovated to museum London, England.
Tate Modern is remodeling a building that was formerly a " Bankside Power Station." The original power plant, United Kingdom red telephone box and Battersea power station of the famous Sir design Giles Gilbert Scott ( English version due to the design of), height of 99m chimney has, 1947 and 1963 It was completed by the construction divided into two parts a year. Opposite the River Thames is the City of London , a magnificent cityscape with the towering St. Paul's Cathedral, but the South Bank on the south side has been a factory and warehouse behind London for many years. It is a city, and this power plant was also built in a hurry to solve the power shortage in London during the reconstruction of the war. The power plant was closed in 1981, leaving only the functions of the substation to be a dead end. Although there were voices from the public to preserve the building, it was refused to be listed on the historic building list, and in 1993, the prospect of preservation was hopeless, as part of the building began to be demolished to carry out the machine. It was in a state.
Meanwhile, the Tate Gallery (now Tate Britain), located in the Millbank district upstream of the Thames, was operated as a museum of British art and modern and contemporary art around the world, but suffered from a lack of exhibition and storage space in 1980. In the 1980s, a plan was made to move the functions of the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art to a new building in order to expand the space and divide the roles. The biggest question was how to raise the cost of building a building with a sufficiently large exhibition area and whether the land on which that building could be built remains in a convenient location in London, but the board of directors said the city. In the spring of 1994, it was announced that the power plant building in the devastated area on the opposite bank of London would be remodeled and reused. As a result of an architectural design competition in which Tadao Ando and others participated in the summer of the same year, it was announced in January 1995 that the proposal of the up- and-coming Swiss architect combination Herzog & de Meuron had won.
■ Tate Modern Switch House
Since opening in 2000, the gallery has become one of the city's most important cultural attractions. Called a switchhouse, it features a grid-like brick exterior and a folding surface. Inside, there are galleries above and below ground, as well as a new roof terrace with panoramic views of the city. Swiss studio Herzog & de Meuron was invited to design the extension, responsible for the first remodeling of the former Bankside Power Station. The architect's approach was to create a second set. Gallery on the other side of the Turbine Hall-a vast public space that forms the entrance to the Tate Modern.
◆◆ Francis Soler, Frederic Druot
■ Ministry of Culture of France MINISTÈRE DE LA CULTURE
Department store warehouse 1919 → Government building 1933, Government building 1960 → Government building 2004
Six kinds of motifs inspired by "Palazzo del Te (Mantova)" designed by Giulio Romano are designed on the metal net.
◆◆ Rem Koolhaas
■ Prada Foundation
It was originally a distillery built in the 1910s. The venue is composed of three new buildings combined with the existing building.
Fondazione Prada Fondazione Prada's new home is located in the former Gin Distillery, built in 1910, at the Largo Isarco Industrial Complex on the southern tip of Milan, with new buildings such as warehouses, laboratories and brewing silos. The refurbished building and the surrounding new buildings coexist. Large courtyard.
This complex aims to expand the repertoire of spatial typology where art can be exhibited. The project consists of 7 existing buildings and 3 new buildings. A movie theater that is a multimedia auditorium. In addition, Torre is a 9-story permanent exhibition space that displays the Foundation's collections and activities.
There were two independent structures around the Largois Sarco Complex. One is flat and square and the other is vertical. Upon careful inspection, the square building did not offer attractive potential and was demolished, allowing the courtyard to become an important element of outdoor use. The existing building at the western end of the complex, Deposito, is adapted to academic ingenuity. In the basement, the Foundationzione collection is placed in a hybrid of rigorous storage and partial exhibition, creating a "room" for work such as a "room." The artist's car can be unpacked or half-opened.
It is divided into three rooms called Cisterna, a self-supporting object to the east of the Great Hall, and three internal "pulpits" are connected to the external balcony. Its composition suggests the exact industrial needs that are now read as a pseudo-religious environment. The cinema acts as an autonomous cell within the compound. A large bi-fold door provides immediate access to the courtyard. Inside, the rake sheet can be converted to a flat floor, which can be used for staging outdoor events or as an additional covered gallery space.
Facing the courtyard to the north and the abandoned garden to the south, the four "houses" correspond to the Fondazione office and permanent gallery. Within their range is the existing "Haunted House", whose exterior walls are all covered with gold leaf. Inside, the intimate scale of the interior creates a "domestic" setting for a particular piece. Adjacent, Podium is located at the intersection of the two vertical axes of the site and forms the center of the compound. This addition combines two volumes of very different qualities. The ground floor is a completely glass-walled, pillar-free podium. Above is another gallery space covered with foamed aluminum. Both galleries offer a large multi-purpose area for temporary exhibitions and events.
Located in the northwest corner of the complex, the tower features site-specific facilities, a restaurant, reception space, and guest facilities. The other gradually increasing floors accommodate site-specific equipment and provide alternating views of the site and the city.
Rem Koolhaas' Repertoire:
It is surprising that the enormous expansion of the art system has occurred with the reduction in the number of typologies for art exhibitions. To the satisfaction of everyone, abandoned industrial spaces have become the default taste of art-predictable conditions are attractive because they do not challenge the artist's intentions-sometimes energized with exceptional architectural gestures. I did. The new Fondazione Prada, also projected onto the former industrial park, has an extraordinary variety of spatial environments. Three new buildings (a large exhibition pavilion, a tower and a cinema) have been added to this repertoire. With this, the new Fondazione Prada represents a true collection of architectural spaces, in addition to possession of works of art. Fondazione is not a preservation project, but a new architecture. The two conditions, which are usually kept separate here, face each other in a state of permanent interaction. Provides a collection of fragments that do not consolidate into a single image, or allow any part to dominate the other. New, old, horizontal, vertical, wide, narrow, white, black, open, surrounded – all these contrasts establish the opposite range that defines the new Fondazione. By introducing so many spatial variables, the complexity of the architecture facilitates unstable and open programming, allowing art and architecture to benefit from each other's challenges.
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