​National Kenkomi Architectural Design Institute
​World Architectural History III

Diverse society (architect-centered architecture)

Postmodernist architecture Deconstructivist architecture Reductionist architecture

​~ The beginning of the 4th architecture ~
​Chapter 4 Deconstruction

A theory founded by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, he led modern thought in the latter half of the 20th century. It suspects the binary opposition, which is the premise of Western philosophy that has continued from ancient Greece, and attempts to dismantle it. Derrida originally began to use this term as a translation of Heidegger's "demolition." It is a criticism of logos (reason) centricity and has influenced a wide range of fields such as architecture, literary criticism, and feminist theory.

It is a postmodern sect and is said to be a rehash of Russian Constructivism. Architects who are deconstructivist are strongly influenced by Derrida's ideas and Russian Constructivism, and many of them are geometric and asymmetric in terms of modeling. Click here for Russian Constructivism →

The term became widely known when Peter Eisenman and Bernard Tschumi quoted Derrida's ideas when describing their work. Philip Johnson named it "deconstructionism" and defined it as a style, which became popular with the end of postmodernism. The intention of the construction is to overcome the modernism of the functionalism of "form follows function" represented by Le Corbusier and others. It is also an attempt to somehow renew the entire architecture, as it avoids quoting past styles that are characteristic of postmodernism.

Deconstruction as an architectural design method
--Reconsideration of Jacques Derrida -

Outline of work

After seeing the building collapsed in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, Arata Isozaki said, "I have to say that the fashion of deconstruction is over." rice field.

However, with the death of Derrida in 2004, the deconstruction principle is being reviewed again in the philosophical field. In particular, in 1998, "Existential, Postal-About Jacques Derrida-" (Author: Hiroki Azuma), the work of re-questioning deconstruction mechanically (methodologically) is being carried out.

Therefore, I thought that it was necessary to review deconstructivism as a methodology in the field of architecture as well. At that time, paying attention to the fact that deconstructivist architecture in the 1990s was a surface problem, this design aimed at a different form of deconstructivist architecture. Mr. Isozaki's words "deconstruction is" fashion "-." Are disassembled into two meanings, "fashion" and "wear, clothes", and refer to "(1) scale extraction" and "(2) the structural form of Bordeaux's house." We took out two methods of "doing" and applied them to the design.

This design plans a new station building at the "Takanawa Gateway Station Planned Site". The station building refers to the structural form of "Bordeaux House", and the commercial facility area on the top floor is composed of skip floors. The plan follows the method and is determined on a basis separate from the functional requirements.

◆◆ Frank Gehry

An architect from Toronto , Canada , based in Los Angeles , USA . Currently a professor at Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture. He also teaches at Yale University. It is said that he grew up in a less wealthy family, drawing pictures and liking music since he was a child. After graduating from high school in Toronto, he has a unique background, working as a truck driver, attending night classes at a school in Los Angeles, and studying art and architecture. It is said that it took time to get success, not only in architecture but also in furniture design and quarreling with investors. It is said that the reason why it came to the attention of the world was unexpectedly a work of renovation of a home in Santa Monica, California, USA, using industrial materials such as corrugated sheet iron plate and chain link fence, "deconstructivism". It is also said to be a pioneer of "deconstructivism" architecture.

■ Vitra Design Museum

The Vitra Design Museum is a museum located in Weil am Rhein, Baden-Württemberg , Germany. Swiss furniture company headquartered in Vitra ( English version located in the factory premises). The museum exhibits a huge number of designer furniture and lighting fixtures owned by Vitra, and is said to be the most important design museum in the world. Weil am Rhein is a town on the border with Switzerland and is adjacent to Basel. Charles and Ray Eames and his wife (Charles & Ray Eames), Alexander Girard (Alexander Girard), Anton Lorenz (Anton Lorenz), George Nelson (George Nelson), Werner Panton (Verner Panton), et al., Works of famous designers Also stored. We also hold large exhibitions about twice a year. The museum opened in 1989 [1] . It features an intricately shaped exterior by renowned architect Frank Gehry.

The Vitra Design Museum is located on the premises of the Vitra factory called the Vitra Campus. On the Vitra campus are Tadao Ando 's seminar house, Zaha Hadid 's fire department, Alvaro Siza 's factory facilities (roof of connecting passages), Jean Prouvé 's gas station, Buckminster Fuller 's dome tent, Herzog & de・Works by famous architects from around the world, such as the shop by Mouron and the showroom "Vitra Haus" with a cafe, are gathered together.

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◆◆ Zaha Hadid

Vitra Factory / Fire Station

It was built as a fire station to respond quickly in the event of a fire in the factory, but is now used as an event and exhibition space.

Whether it's practical or not, it's sharp, slanted and cool. Zaha later shifts to a rounded, organic design, but I prefer this one.

As for the building, the four boxes, "garage," "corridor," "toilet / shower," and "second floor (break room)," are arranged with a slight shift, but they are also complicated and well-made. This building was a fire station in the town of Weil am Rhein in Germany, and is the first actual work of Zaha Hadid. In fact, in this town, a building related to Vitra, which is famous as a furniture maker, has been built by many famous architects including Zaha Hadid. After a big fire that broke out in the past, the Vitra factory was destroyed by the fire. And it started with having a well-known architect design the rebuilding of each building. And why is the Vitra fire department in the first place? It was built as a fire station to respond quickly in the event of a fire at the factory due to the lack of a public fire station nearby. It's amazing to have a dedicated fire station on the factory premises! In recent years, a public building has been built nearby, so this building is useless! Currently, it is said that it is a space where the Vitra chair collection is exhibited and events are held.

However, when I first tried this building, it was a super cool fire station! I thought. Whether it's practical or not, it's sharp, slanted and cool. The unique form that makes heavy use of acute angles makes you feel the early Zaha style. Architecture has a space and form that can be torn apart. The exposed concrete finish gives the building a slope. The shape of a combination of crisp concrete boards is sharp like a knife. Even so, the eaves slab is thin and thin. But it's cool!

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◆◆ Frank Gehry

■ Dancing House

The Dancing House ( Czech : Tančící dům) is a building built in Prague in 1996. Both Ginger & Fred (named after the famous dancers of 1930s musical films, Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire). The official name is Nationale Nederlanden Building. After the end of the Cold War, the Czech Republic democratized and split with Slovakia, and Vaclav Havel was built during the presidency. Once there is a home of Havel in the building next to this land, Vladimir Mirunitchi at the edge that had been boarding house, under the auspices of the Havel Mirunitchi and the Frank Gehry -designed. As it is commonly known, it gives the impression that a couple is dancing and a partner is holding a woman who is leaning. Initially, such a novel design was not well received in Prague, which has many historic buildings, but now it seems to be accepted as it is.

The official name is "National Nederlanden Building" and it was built in 1996.
Located near the Vltava River (Moldau) that runs through the city, it is a futuristic building that stands out in the cityscape with many buildings with reddish-brown roofs.
Using curved lines at will, the building that represents a feminine glass-walled shape and the building that looks like a cylinder to snuggle up to it are integrated.
The popular name "Dancing House" is perfect, and it looks like a piece of dance between two people.
The interior is a hotel, and there are many rooms that are as eccentric as they look, such as irregular polygonal rooms and slanted windows.
Restaurants and cafes are open to non-guests, so anyone can enjoy the quirky building from the inside out.

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◆◆ Frank Gehry

■ Bilbao Guggenheim Museum

A museum in Bilbao , Spain. Specializing in modern and contemporary art , it opened on October 18, 1997. It is one of the annexes of the Guggenheim Museum founded by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in the United States, and was designed by architect Frank Gehry . [2]

It is located in the Abando district in the center of Bilbao, adjacent to the Nervion River , which runs through the city of Bilbao. Permanent exhibitions and special exhibitions by domestic and foreign artists are held. The building of the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum is one of the most admired works of contemporary architecture , saying that there is "a rare moment when critics, scholars and the public are completely united in the evaluation of this building". It is hailed as the "signal moment in the architectural culture" [3] . A 2010 survey of architects by the World Building Research Institute frequently named it one of the most important buildings in the 30 years since 1980.

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is one of the prime examples of deconstructivism, representing a fusion of complex, swirling shapes and fascinating materiality. Frank Gehry not only revolutionized the way architects and people think of museums, but also mistakenly pushed up Bilbao's economy in light of the museum's extraordinary success. Over 100 exhibitions and over 10 million visitors have passed through this stunning building. The attractive architectural design actually affected the transformation of the entire city, a phenomenon that became known as the "Bilbao effect". The term describes the idea of putting a city on a map by attracting world-class cultural institutions such as Guggenheim, bringing more investment, branding, tourism and cultural energy. And the Guggenheim branch in Bilbao is undoubtedly a major landmark in city and world architecture. More than a million people visit the museum each year, and the project to create such a unique building is undoubtedly successful.

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◆◆ Coop Himmelblau

■ UFA Cinema Center

Return to the station while walking around the city. You can enjoy German-style squares and churches. On the other hand, I also encountered a cultural palace and a large commercial facility under renovation reminiscent of the old east. In addition, there is also the "UFA Cinema Center" designed by Coop Himmelblau, which creates a cityscape with layers of history. The movie theater is a fiercely shaped dicon, but due to the nature of the facility, there is little experience of space. However, asking an architect for a cinema complex is a drastic project that is hard to imagine in Japan.
Designed by Coop Himmelblau, the UFA Cinema Center is a modernist architecture built from the ashes of the city of Dresden, which was destroyed by a fire. It faces the problem of public space, which is currently at stake in European cities, which has the function of a city in it and breaks down the concept of a single purpose of building. The design is characterized by two interconnected building units, Cinema Block and Crystal. The eight cinemas in the first block can accommodate 2600 guests. Crystal is a glass shell that primarily serves as a foyer and public square. Weaving public squares, walkways and public interiors is a vibrant way to characterize the new center of Dresden.

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◆◆ Peter Eisenman

Memorial to the Murdered European Jews

The Memorial to the Murdered European Jews ( German : Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas, commonly known as the Holocaust Monument) was opened on May 12, 2005, south of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. , A monument for the Jewish victims killed in the Holocaust. 2,711 concrete stone monuments lined up in a grid on the site of 19,073 m2 were opened to the public. Blocks with a thickness of 0.95m and a width of 2.38m are connected at various heights (0m to about 4.5m). It was designed by Peter Eisenman, who lives in New York, USA. In the basement, there is an information center about the Holocaust, where the names and materials of the Holocaust victims provided by the Israeli memorial Yad Vashem are displayed.

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◆◆ Peter Eisenman

CITY OF CULTURE OF GALICIA

The City of Galicia (Galicia: Galicia Cultura de Galicia or simply Cidade da Cultura) is a complex cultural facility in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Galicia, Galicia, designed by a group of architects led by Peter Eisenman. .. The design of the building included advanced contours to make the building look like a rolling hill, making it difficult and expensive to build. Almost every thousands of windows that are part of the external façade have their own custom shapes. In 2013, it was announced that the construction of the project would be stopped after more than 10 years. The International Art Center and Music and Scenic Art Center will not be built.
In February 1999, the Galician Parliament held an international design competition for the Cultural Center on Mount Gaias. Participants were Ricardo Bofill, Manuel Gajegojorate, Annette Guyer, Mike Guyer, Steven Holl, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Juan Navarobaldeweg, Jean Nouvel, Dominique Perrault, Cesar Portera, Santiago Calatrava and later his Withdrew the proposal. The proposal was chosen for both conceptual uniqueness and extraordinary harmony with the place.
The concept of this project is a new peak in Montegaias, where the stone crust reminiscent of archaeological sites is divided by a natural cut that resembles the traditional symbol of compostela, the scallop.
The construction site is also the base for the development of public transparency urban experiments by Spanish architect and artist Andres Jaque. The action to make Jaque's 12 Cidade da Cultura transparent has equipped the construction site with equipment that makes the political impact and ecological extension of construction work easier for the general public to understand.
The project has more than doubled its original budget and has not attracted a large number of visitors (it has become a white elephant for subsequent governments and taxpayers). Construction of the last two planned buildings was discontinued in 2012 and was finally completed in March 2013 due to high cost overruns.

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◆◆ Daniel Libeskind

Jewish Museum Berlin

In 1989, he was elected as a designer in this competition at the Jewish Museum Berlin, and has since been involved in the design of museums and museums. Jewish Museum in Denmark, Victoria & Albert Museum in England, etc. Berlin Jewish Museum ( German : Jüdisches Museum Berlin, English : Jewish Museum Berlin) is 2001 in the German capital of Berlin - Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg City was opened in the museum . It collects, studies and exhibits records of Jewish history and life in Germany from the 1st millennium to the present day. The designer of the characteristic torn building was the Polish- born Jewish-American architect Daniel Libeskind . The adjacent former Berlin High Court building ("Kollegienhaus") is also part of the museum.

Princeton University professor Michael Blumenthal has been the director since December 1997, before the museum opened. Blumenthal was born in Berlin, fled the Nazi regime and moved to the United States to serve as the United States Treasury Secretary under the Jimmy Carter administration.

Born in Lodz, Poland (whose parents are Jewish and Holocaust survivors), Daniel Libeskind replies on the purpose of the building: My goal was to create some sort of destructive element in my architecture for the exhibition. Inside the Jewish Museum, people have to enjoy themselves, feel comfortable and be impressed. But I wanted to prevent them from escaping in melancholy or on the good days of the past, which have nothing to do with the present. Many people who can't stand the lack of symbolic signs in this architecture look for its meaning. However, the answer is not easy to find, and it is designed to resist a particular one-dimensional interpretation. What Libeskind wanted for this architecture was that the Nazi's abominable memory wasn't as easy as turning it on and off with a single switch, but he manipulated it all at once and in multiple ways, using the architecture as a catalyst to reinforce that memory. That was it. Instead of just looking on the sidelines, I hoped that it would be remembered by people as a meaningful experience.

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◆◆ Daniel Libeskind

■ Royal Ontario Museum

Royal Ontario Museum, built in 1933

The part added by the expansion work (Michael Lee-Chin Crystal) The Royal Ontario Museum (Royal Ontario Museum, nickname: ROM, Royal Ontario Museum) is known worldwide in Toronto , Canada. Museum . It will be the fifth largest museum in North America. The building was completed on April 16, 1912 and opened on March 19, 1914. It was run by the University of Toronto until 1955 and is now an independent institution. The museum is close to Queen's Park and the University of Toronto. Known for its collections of dinosaur fossils, Middle Eastern art, African art, East Asian art, European history, Canadian history and culture, species diversity, archeology and more. Due to the small size of the building and the insufficient exhibition area for the amount stored in the museum, only a small part of the museum can be seen. Since 2003, a project called "Renaissance ROM" designed by Daniel Libeskind has been underway, and large-scale expansion and renovation work has been carried out. The expansion space is unique with a novel design. In December 2005, the first stage of the project was completed and a new exhibition area was opened. In addition to a permanent exhibition related to Japan named "Prince Takamado Gallery of Japan", a new exhibition area in Asia such as China and South Korea has also been opened. Expansion and renovation work was completed in June 2007.

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Any meeting

An international conference on architecture held from 1991 to 2000. 

Based on the concept of "Any", we discussed the outline of 20th century architecture and the architecture of 21st century while bridging architecture and philosophy. 

As a repetition of CIAM (Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne) at the end of the 20th century, which led the modernization of international architecture from 2016 to 1959, while the post-modernization of the 1980s was declining. You can also think of it. Participants include Rem Koolhaas, Bernard Tschumi and Daniel Libeskind in their fifties, followed by Greg Lynn, Alejandro Zaera-Polo and Ben van Berkel. In addition, Jacques Derrida, philosophers who inherit the ideas of Gilles Deleuze such as John Rajchman, and Akira Asada and Kojin Karatani from Japan are also participating. The conference aimed at organizing groups and inducing alternation of generations, which are central to social activities in the 21st century, by summarizing the 20th century. Source: artscape

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