National Kenkomi Architectural Design Institute
World Architectural History III
Diverse society (architect-centered architecture)
Postmodernist architecture Deconstructivist architecture Reductionist architecture
～ The beginning of the 4th architecture ～
Chapter 2 High Tech Architecture
Architecture in which technology appears as a design on the surface.
Also known as structural expressionist architecture. From the 1960s to the 1970s, architecture that could not be technically built until now became possible by using the latest structural technology, and it began to appear in the world one after another. The roots of the structural style are in Brutalist, driven by James Stirling, Richard Rogers, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and others, influenced by their central figures, the Smithsons. Was done.
The name comes from Design Journalists Joan Kron and Susanne Schlesin's High Tech: The Industrial Style and Source Book for the Home (1978). From the 1980s, it became difficult to distinguish from postmodern architecture, and many themes and ideas born from high-tech architecture were gradually absorbed into postmodern architecture.
<Three great masters of high-tech architecture>
Famous for Richard Rogers, Norman Foster and Renzo Piano.
◆◆ Eero Saarinen
A child of Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. Born in Helsinki, moved to the United States at the age of 13. He studied at his father's course at the Cranbrook College of Art in Michigan and met Charles and Ray Eames while attending school. After studying abroad in Paris to study sculpture, he entered the Department of Architecture at Yale University. In 1934, he graduated with a bachelor's degree in architecture from Yale University. I got a scholarship from the university and went on a two-year trip to Europe.
In 1937, he established an architectural design office in collaboration with his father Eliel. He worked until Eliel passed away in 1950 and worked on numerous designs. In 1940, he and Charles Eames applied for the "Organic Furniture Design" competition held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. He exhibited chairs, shelves, and desks made of molded plywood and won 2 out of 6 categories. From 1941, he served in the military and worked as a building engineer at the American Strategic Bureau.
He came to the forefront of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, a national park built in 1948 in St. Louis, Missouri to commemorate the expansion and reclamation of the west. It was due to the winning proposal "Gateway Arch" of the monument design competition. Aero is still unknown, and the competition prize was mistakenly given to his father Eliel. The huge arch, 192m high and 192m wide, was difficult to design, but construction began in 1963 and was completed in 1965, making it a popular symbol of St. Louis and archetypal old west.
The office name was changed after the death of his father in 1950. A world of expressionist-style architecture with flowing curved surfaces using concrete shell structures, such as the General Motors Technology Center, the MIT Kresge Auditorium, and the TWA Terminal Building at the famous John F. Kennedy International Airport. Was predominant. He also designs interiors and furniture in architecture, and the futuristic design using the curve represented by the tulip chair is also representative of the middle of the 20th century. He is also known to have strongly recommended Jorn Utzon's proposal from among the rejected proposals in the Sydney Opera House architectural design competition for which he served as a judge, and finally won the championship.
He died in 1961 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of a brain tumor at the age of 51. Many unfinished projects were left behind, including The Gateway Arch, but Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates, the architect Kevin Roche's design firm who worked under him, completed many of them. rice field. Since he changed his style for each work, he was often ignored by the authority of the architectural world during his lifetime and became a mockery, but today he is counted as one of the leading American masters of the 20th century.
■ TWA Terminal (inside JFK Airport)
Beautiful when viewed from a distance. The shape is very charming. The contrast between the white roof and the deeply colored reflective surface of the glass was very good. If the reflective surfaces of the glass weren't beautiful, the TWA Terminal might have ended up with a white roof as an interesting building. However, this reflective surface gives calmness and dignity to the whole. Unfortunately I forgot to take the whole picture. But the whole thing is famous in various books, so please forgive me. The concrete shell of the roof is not uniform. The notch slits between the shells are irregularly dispersed, and the outer shape cannot be imagined from the inside. The gap between the shells is a top light, and the structural expression is dynamic. In "Around the Architecture of the Skyscraper City of New York," I called this work an expressionist work, but when I looked at it, it felt very modern, and it was far from my image of expressionism. .. Certainly, it uses a lot of curves, and as far as I can see in the photograph, it looks as if the morphology is an internal manifestation of the individual. But when I looked at the real thing, it felt like the modern "organic" curves found in late Wright architecture. However, when I went inside, my impression changed completely. The finish of the roof shell is smooth on the outside, but intentionally rugged on the inside, giving a completely different impression on the inside and outside. As soon as I entered, I had a somewhat terrifying feeling. For a moment I imagined the terrifying world of expressionist cinema. When I think about it, it's a little tricky, but I feel that it makes sense to call it "expressionist." As for the internal structure, the first thing that attracts attention is the ridge placed inside the hall and the bridge that connects them. I felt that the fact that there was a bridge in the center was the key to putting together the overall composition. Without this bridge, the whole thing wouldn't feel well organized. I also liked the fact that there was a small break at the base of the slit. Well, if I was writing a floor plan and there was a space like this, even an architecture student would make it a resting place. In other words, it looks like a very natural space, but the details such as diagonal glass are good and it feels very good. The overall impression is that it is small for a terminal. I'm worried about whether this can really be used for international flights, even though I'm doing other things. In fact, this terminal has a huge extension over the road, which contains functions such as counters. It means that the original part alone could not be done. The added eaves were made by another architect in 1978. In AIA's New York guide, this building was written as if it were a very sensational building. Certainly, a curve feels more "feeling" than a right angle, but the curve of the TWA terminal is a form that creates a structure at the same time. We are not just looking at the sensational "appeal", we are looking at how the building is supported / supported. I think this is a more "reasonable" curve for a building than the "curve" of Frank Gehry, who is popular in the United States these days.
◆◆ Gunter Behish, Frei Otto
■ Munich Olympia Stadion
An athletics stadium in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It is one of the few stadiums in the world that has experienced both the main stadium of the Summer Olympics and the finals of the World Cup. Designed by architect Günter Behnisch and architect Frei Otto. It is the Olympic stadium held in 1972.
Frei Otto and his colleagues designed not only a stadium, but also an indoor stadium (hall) and an indoor pool, which are still in use as active facilities. In addition, the surrounding area is maintained as a park and is visited by many tourists and citizens. The weather was fine on that day, so I had lunch at a cafe in the park with a beer.
The main stand of the stadium is covered with a characteristic hanging roof, but it is very bright and hardly feels like it is covered. However, compared to the latest stadiums, the distance to the ground is far, so it may be a little difficult to watch soccer games in particular. On the other hand, the columns that support the cables were powerful.
◆◆ Karl Schwanzer
■ BMW Headquarters
◆◆ Yohn - Wottsun other
■ Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a modern 20th century building in Sydney, Australia, and is also a world-famous opera house, concert hall and theater. It is home to Opera Australia, the Sydney Theater Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.
The designer was Jorn Utzon, an architect who was unknown at the time of the plan decision, but the construction was significantly delayed due to the unique shape and difficulty of structural design, and although the construction started in 1959, it was completed in 1973. It is the world heritage site with the newest construction age in the world, and after completion, it is popular not only as a symbol of Sydney but also as a symbol of Australia. Located at Bennelong Point, a cape that juts out into Sydney Harbor, the exterior reminiscent of shells and sailboat sails is also a staple photo spot for tourists visiting Sydney with the Sydney Harbor Bridge. However, due to the small size of the opera orchestra, recordings and recordings of opera performances are not popular, and in Japan, only a few videos of ballet performances are introduced.
◆◆ Richard Rogers, Renzo Piano
■ Pompidou Center
The Center national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou (CNAC-GP); commonly known as the "Centre Pompidou") is a comprehensive cultural facility located in the Saint-Merri district of the 4th arrondissement of Paris. Is. 1969 on, was also the modern art lovers Georges Pompidou president (1969-1974) is the capital city of Paris in the heart of the Art and Design other, design , music , movie -related facilities and libraries , including the modern and contemporary art centers Announced the concept of establishing. The inauguration ceremony was held in 1977 by President Valery Giscard Destin. It was designed by architects Renzo Piano , Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini ( French version ).  Initially, there were criticisms that the design was too novel and spoiled the aesthetics of Paris, which is lined with historic buildings, but Renzo Piano said, "I wanted to destroy the image of a stern cultural facility. This is the ultimate freedom of art and human beings. It's a dream of a relationship, and at the same time, it's a place where you can feel the breath of the city. "
The Pompidou Center is mainly a public information library (French style 1st to 3rd floor), National Museum of Modern Art and Industrial Creation ( French version ) (4th to 6th floor), movie theater , multipurpose hall , conference room , Atelier Brancusi. , Kandinsky Library and National Institute of Acoustics and Music ( IRCAM ).
◆◆ Richard Rodgers
■ Lloyd's of London
A description of the text provided by the architect. After the Pompidou Center was completed with Renzo Piano in 1977, Richard Rogers was commissioned to design a new building to replace the original Lloyd's insurance building in London. This will be the second expansion in the history of the company's headquarters due to the overcrowding of hundreds of people dealing with international insurance cases. Lloyd's building was completed in 1986 and brought the aesthetics of high-tech architecture to London's medieval financial district, previously implemented in the design of the Pompidou Center in Paris. Since 1928, the site has been home to Lloyd in London. One of the largest insurance companies in the world dating back to the 17th century. Founded in the 17th century, Lloyd in London has grown from an insurer from within the UK to a global business, taking over staff and customers at an unprecedented rate, which requires some expansion. was. The largest and most prominent Rogers. Like the Center Pompidou, Lloyd's building is designed "inside out". All service features will be removed from the inside and placed outside the building. This not only facilitates the replacement and maintenance of elevators, plumbing and electrical equipment, but also frees up the interior and creates an open and flexible plan that enables uninterrupted activity at each level. With open space planning, you can reconstruct the interior from moment to moment with partition walls that allow you to divide each floor to create new and interesting spaces.
The Lloyd's of London building consists of three main towers concentrically arranged around a 60-meter atrium in the center of the building. Each floor acts as a gallery overlooking the atrium. However, only the first 4th floor leads to the atrium, while the rest is surrounded by glass panels. The entire building is wrapped in stainless steel and the building is high-tech, almost postmodern and aesthetic. The streamlined façade, juxtaposed with external mechanical and service functions, not only evokes technological advances in its construction, but also represents the building's main focus on functionality. Aesthetics seems to have an almost unfinished quality for its structure. Roger's left the cranes from the building at the top of the building to the building as a decorative feature, but their presence is London's Lloyd's building inside modernist architecture with insights into modern aesthetics. Suggests to make a place for.
◆◆ Richard Rodgers
■ The O2 (Millennium Dome)
Formerly known as the world's largest dome on the Greenwich Peninsula in southeast London, England. Currently, it is a complex facility "The O2". The dome is hung by cables from twelve yellow masts. The designer is Richard Rodgers .
The "Millennium Commission" is supporting the development as part of the Millennium Project (2000 Memorial Project) [Note 1] in the United Kingdom, and it was opened to the public on January 1, 2000 under the name "Millennium Dome" ("Millennium Dome". The opening ceremony was held on December 31, 1999, the day before. Initially, the main purpose of this dome was to hold the exhibition "Millennium Experience", but the project had considerable problems such as deterioration of profits, and it was temporarily closed on December 31, the same year at the end of the exhibition. rice field.
In 2005, Anschutz Entertainment Group acquired the naming rights (* The naming rights were sold to the British mobile phone company O2 in the same year as part of the investment program), and the dome was redeveloped. It reopened as "The O2" on June 23, 2007.
◆◆ Norman Foster
■ HSBC Building
Invented at a delicate time in the history of the former colony, the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Headquarters briefs were a sign of confidence in building "the best banking building in the world." Through a process of questions and challenges, including the involvement of Feng Shui Geomancers, the project addressed the nature of Hongkong banks and how they should be expressed in a constructed form. In doing so, the office tower was effectively reinvented. Due to the need for construction of over 1 million square feet on a short time scale, an advanced prefab including factory-finished modules was proposed, but a suspension structure was adopted because it was necessary to build both downward and upward at the same time. Then place a pair of steel masts on the 3 masts. As a result, the shape of the building is linked to the stepped contours of the three towers on the 29th, 36th, and 44th floors, respectively, creating floors of various widths and depths, corresponding to the garden terrace. increase. The structure of the mast pushed the service core around, creating a deep planned floor around the 10-story atrium. The mirrored "Sun Scoop" reflects sunlight through the atrium to the floor of the public square below-a vibrant picnic spot on weekends. From the square the escalator rises from the abdomen under the glass to the bank hall. This was considered a "bank window".
The "bridge" between the masts defines a double-height reception area that visually and socially destroys the size of the building. The unique system of navigating the building, combined with a high-speed lift and an escalator to the reception space, reflects a cluster of office floors like a village. From the beginning, we have made flexibility a top priority. Interestingly, over the years, office layouts have been easily reconfigured, and large dealer rooms have also been combined on one floor. The building was designed.
◆◆ Norman Foster
■ German Bundestag New Capitol Reichsterk
The dome, which was placed in a classicist building, was visible from a distance and stimulated the architectural brain. Anyone can visit for free without reservation. There is a long line in front of the Capitol, and you can see the heavy façade with Corinthian colonnades and the glass curtain wall behind it for a while, supporting the enterprise with the words dem deutsch volke (German citizen).
After waiting for about an hour, I took a huge elevator like a room to the rooftop. There is a hemispherical glass roof there. When you think of a tour of the Capitol, you think of a chamber, but you can hardly see it here. The floor in the center of the dome is a glass skylight and you can see the chamber from above. But the angle was bad, it was far, dark, and I didn't know what was ahead (though it should be the Capitol). Instead, a dome and a slope were prepared. The structure that supports the exterior glass, such as a greenhouse, is slender like an enlarged model. A huge trumpet-shaped mirror object stands up in the center, suggesting the heavens, and the slope invites. The slope that rises to lick the inside of the dome is said to be a structure that supports the dome rather than being supported by the outer wall.
In addition to the excellent design of the dome, Reichsterk is also one of Germany's most environmentally friendly and sustainable architecture. Visually, the exterior glass protruded into a ventilation window, and a huge movable awning was visible inside, and the sail-like cover of the yacht was incredibly large and blocked direct sunlight.
◆◆ Norman Foster
■ British Museum --Great Court
View of Omiya from the 2nd floor of the South Wing.
Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, commonly referred to simply as the Great Court, is the central square of the British Museum in London. In the late 1990s, it was redeveloped from the 1970s design of Colin St. John Wilson to the design of Foster and Partners. The court was opened in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth.
The courtyard in the center of the British Museum was one of London's long-lost spaces. Originally the garden was filled with a round reading room and its associated pile of books shortly after it was completed in the mid-19th century. Without this space, the museum would have been like a city without a park. This project is about its reinvention.
With more than 6 million visitors annually, the British Museum is as popular as the Louvre and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. However, without a centralized circulatory system, it was crowded and difficult to navigate. The departure of the British Library was an opportunity to remove the pile of books and regain the courtyard as a new public focus. The Great Court enters from the main level of the museum and connects all the surrounding galleries. There are information points, bookstores and cafes in the space. At its heart is the magnificent volume of the reading room, which is now the main exhibition space, open to all for the first time in its history. The large staircase surrounding the reading room leads to a temporary exhibition gallery and restaurant terrace. Below the courtyard are the Sainsbury Africa Gallery, Education Center and facilities for elementary school students.
The glass canopy that makes all this possible is a fusion of state-of-the-art engineering and form economy. Its unique geometry is designed to straddle the irregular gap between the drums of the reading room and the façade of the courtyard, both the main structure and frame for the glass, which is designed to reduce the benefits of the sun. To form. As a cultural square, the court also resonates beyond the limits of the museum, forming a new link on the pedestrian route from the British Library to Covent Garden, the river and the South Bank. To complement this artery, the museum's vestibule was restored to form a new civic space. Along with the Great Court, it's a major new amenity for London.
◆◆ Santiago Calatrava
Lisbon Oriente Station
It is a railway station in Lisbon , the capital of Portugal. The architecture of Santiago Calatrava is big because I have only seen the tower called "Tora da Cumnicacion's da Munjuic " on the hill of Montjuic in Barcelona, Spain and the "Zubizuri Bridge " in Bilbao, Spain. It will be the first time to see it. A structure with a dinosaur feather-like skeleton was connected to a lively exterior space. This is the exit where the bus terminal is located. After my stay in Lisbon, I took a bus from here to Madrid, Spain. The platform on the upper floor is covered with a roof with continuous feathers. The other roof leads to the shopping center opposite. The underground is connected to the metro station, and the Spanish high-speed railway is scheduled to extend in the future, and the Oriente station, which is used by many people, has a large space under the platform. This large space is very beautiful surrounded by the skeleton structures of living things. It is a Calatrava-like architecture that integrates structure and design. The organically shaped structure realizes a large space without pillars. Shadows appear at night and this is also beautiful.
◆◆ Santiago Calatrava
■ Valencia City of Arts and Sciences
The City of Arts and Sciences is a complex of facilities for science education and art in Valencia , Spain. Five impressive contemporary buildings are lined up on the old riverbed of the Turia River, which was replaced by a park in 1980 due to the Flood in 1957.
A complex facility in Valencia for the dissemination of life, science, technology and artistic activities. It is one of the largest in Europe, composed of impressive contemporary buildings. Valencia's endemic plant species are planted in the garden L'Umbracle, which is lined with sculptures by contemporary artists. Mosaic crushed glass that shines in the dark blue sky of Spain is reminiscent of Gaudi architecture. Adjacent to the huge harp-shaped bridge, Agora is a multi-purpose space where the Valencia Open and other events are held. With an area of 40,000 square meters, the Prince Felipe Science Museum is designed to remind you of the skeleton of a living thing. The surrounding water creates a mysterious beauty and gives the illusion of being in a lake. Remisferic, which has an egg-shaped roof, screens planetariums and aquariums.
Behind the novel leg-shaped bridge is the Opera House Queen Sofia Arts Palace. Valencia's huge landmark architecture that you can enjoy from morning till night.
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