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​National Kenkomi Architectural Design Institute
​World Architectural History III

Diverse society (architect-centered architecture)

Postmodernist architecture Deconstructivist architecture Reductionist architecture

​~ The beginning of the 4th architecture ~
​Chapter 5 Swiss Minimalism

An art movement developed mainly in the United States in the 1960s. It features simple shapes and colors, with the decorations and explanatory elements removed as much as possible. There is no trace of the author, and repetitiveness, symmetry, continuity, etc. are simply emphasized.

  <Minimal Art>

Like Donald Judd's work, he tended to actively engage with the "place" where the work was set up.

  In relation to pop art of the same era, it is analyzed that the intention and method of expression are positively symmetric.

  In the background is the influence of Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception.

The most distinctive feature of this book is that by focusing on our "body" and "perception", we suspect traditional binary oppositions such as subjectivity / objective and consciousness / object, and ambiguously structure physical experience. It is in the point that I insisted. This idea of Merleau-Ponty does not follow the conventional model of simple "appreciation" (subject to see / object to be seen), but rather postwar art that emphasizes the phase of the viewer's "body". It was only natural that it would affect the situation. "Phenomenology of Perception" was translated into English in 1962, but it is said that the book had a considerable influence on the formation of the theory of minimal art centered on the west coast of the United States. Source: artscape

< Swiss minimalism >

During the heyday of postmodernism in the 1980s, Donald Judd, who was criticized in the United States, was in mid-exile in Switzerland, where there were many collectors.

Perhaps because of that, in the 90's, many young architects from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) became obsessed with minimalism. Herzog & de Meuron, Gigon & Goya, and Peter Zumthor.

◆◆ Dominique Perrault

Dominique Perrault (Dominique Perrault, 1953 year April 9 -) is French of architects , urban planners . Born in Clermont-Ferrand. Representative works include the French National Library and the Olympic Bicycle Stadium (Berlin). Currently, he is the representative of Dominique Perrault Architecte Dominique Perrault Architecte (DPA) (Paris Geneva Madrid), research platform DPAx. Among the world-famous architects, Dominique Perrault, a mid-sized French architect, specializes in urban planning. Dominique Perrault's buildings look inorganic at first glance, but when you look closely, they are tilted or distorted, and are characterized by their natural form. Speaking of Perot, the French National Library, which was completed in 1995, is famous, but there are buildings in the four corners of the area that look like a building that is just an open book. In Paris, where there are many historic buildings, the library, which is too urban, is surprising, but the area was once a warehouse district. With the construction of the National Diet Library, it became a landmark and the development of the surrounding area progressed. It will be a catalyst for the development of a new popular spot in Paris, and will be the key to overcoming the economic saturation of Paris. Perot has an ambition to transform Paris into a modern city. Perot, whose livelihood is city planning, points out economic limitations such as the current population of Paris, and believes that it is necessary to create a modern and functional city in order to overcome them. He says he is aiming for a city like Tokyo. Of course, Paris is a historic city that is not an exaggeration to say that the city itself is a World Heritage Site, so no one wants to spoil its landscape. Just as the construction of skyscrapers is obsessed with Kyoto and architectural design that does not destroy the cityscape is essential, there are similar challenges in Paris. Perot has a reputation for creating modern buildings that incorporate his own personality without destroying the individuality of the town, but there were many criticisms when he was young and until he established his current position. It goes without saying that there were twists and turns.

■ French National Library

It is a national library centered on Paris , France. Royal library founded by Charles V in 1367  Originates from. Due to the French Revolution, it became the National Library (Bibliothèque Nationale), and during the imperial era it was also called the Imperial Library (Bibliothèque Impériale), but in 1994 it became the current name of the French National Library. Located near the north side of Palais Royal in 1st arrondissement , it is based on the Richelieu Building (old building) on Rue de Richelieu in 2nd arrondissement, and as of 2014, it consists of 7 facilities. Among them, the Francois Mitterrand Pavilion in the Bercy district (Torbiac district) in the 13th district , which was completed in 1994, is the main facility. In addition, it also operates the electronic library "Gallica," which can be viewed from all over the world. The 1537 decree, which is still in force, requires that all printed matter published in France be kept in one copy in this library. The library holds more than 10 million books , 350,000 bundles of manuscripts and manuscripts, as well as maps , coins , documents , prints and records .

Four buildings that look like cut out only the four corners of a square box stand out. The building has a 90 degree angle and is L-shaped when viewed from above. It is considered to imitate the shape of an open book. Most of this 100m high building is used as a library stack for storing books. Some very old books have wooden doors on the windows of the building to prevent them from deteriorating due to sunlight. There is a courtyard surrounded by four buildings, and a reading room is built in the basement. Completed in 1994, it took two years to move about 10 million materials scattered across multiple locations in Paris.

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◆◆ Peter Zumthor

Gugarn House

Our friend and architectural photographer Felipe Camu recently embarked on an architectural pilgrimage to the Rhine Valley. Located in the Graubünden region of Switzerland, this valley boasts many of Pritzker Prize-winning Peter Zuntor's masterpieces, all within a 60 km radius. Born by Graubunden himself, Tsumtor paid special attention to details and materials and designed his work in relation to location and time. As a result, all works show Zumthor's unrivaled craftsmanship and his uncompromising integrity. The St. Benedict Chapel was built in the village of Sumvitg after an avalanche in 1984 destroyed the village's existing Baroque chapel. The modest columnar chapel consisted of local wooden shingles with a roof over it reminiscent of the hull of a boat. Vertical wooden columns and rings of glass panels allow natural light to penetrate the interior space and contain minimal woodwork. This is a showcase of Zumthor's craftsmanship.

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◆◆ Peter Zumthor

Terme Vals

Vals, an unexplored valley in central Switzerland surrounded by mountains. World-famous for this small village with a population of only 1,000 is the hot spring spa facility Terme Vals, designed by world-renowned Swiss architect Peter Zumthor. Not only the space, but also the materials used and the commitment to how to use the materials, and the commitment to stoic architecture, which is said to be done only by trusted craftsmen, are a number of beautiful buildings that other architects cannot imitate. That is why Peter Zumthor is respected by many architects. This Terme Vals is said to be one of Peter Zumthor's masterpieces, and the Terme Spa, which is made up of more than 60,000 stone slabs mined in the area, is a wonderful space that is acclaimed by the world. This facility was started as a project to rebuild the hot spring spa facility attached to the hospital in this area, and since the hotel function was added later, the spa facility and the hotel facility are separate buildings, and the 140 guest rooms are MAIN. , SELVA, TOMUL, and ZERFRELIA. The MAIN building has 40 guest rooms named TEMPORARIES, and the SELVA building has 20 stucco-finished guest rooms called SELVA STUCCO designed by Peter Zumthor. Spa facilities include an indoor pool, ice bath, outdoor heated pool, massage therapy space, lounge, and other spa facilities. The hotel has a restaurant, bar lounge, and shops. This hotel is recommended for those who want to enjoy the famous architecture of Peter Zumthor.

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◆◆ Peter Zumthor

Kolumba Church Cologne Diocese Museum

It is a museum of the church of St. Colomba (Archbishop of Cologne) built on the ruins of the Roman period and the ruins of a chapel destroyed in World War II. It's a confusing expression, but in other words, it contains three facilities. The exterior is finished with light gray bricks.

The ruins, which are often introduced in architectural magazines, are mysterious in the light from the innumerable small openings, but the space was not as much as I expected.

But the museum part is wonderful. The walls have a seamless and smooth finish. The floor is also terrazzo with no visible connection. Minimal, static and austere. It is also an accent that you can see the cityscape of Cologne from the large windows in some places.

By the way, since the collection is a church, I imagined classic works of art, but there are also many avant-garde (slightly esoteric) contemporary works of art.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

SBB Station Signal Station Switch Tower

It is Europe 's largest border station in Basel , Switzerland. Swiss domestic trains and Germany to the long-distance train , to Paris TGV are landing here Basel SBB station. From 1998 to 1999, a new signal station was built on the order of the Swiss Federal Railways. This prominent building was designed by Herzog & de Meuron. wikipedia Signal Box (Signal Box at Basel SBB Station) designed by Herzog & de Meuron in Basel, Switzerland! The building features a façade wrapped with copper plates, and the twist of the copper plates gives it a different look depending on the viewing angle. This copper plate gently controls sunlight and protects the internal electronic devices.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

 

Dominus Winery

Did you know that the buildings that make sake also have nice architecture? The architecture we are introducing this time is a winery of a company that manufactures Bordeaux-style wines. Winemaking and aging are carried out at this place, and the wines produced there are said to be of the highest quality among the many California wines. I want to drink! In such a building, there are three main spaces: a tank room where initial fermentation is performed, a large barrel storage room where it is aged, and a warehouse where it is bottled and packed in a wooden box and stored until shipping.

The architecture is a long rectangular building with a total length of about 100 meters, a depth of 25 meters, and a height of 9 meters in the middle of the vineyard! There is. The building is located on the site so as not to cross the main passage of the winery. So the building is located in the center of the vineyard and its shape looks like a gate! The space covered with a roof is a large space, and the flow lines to each space with front function intersect.

And here is the part that makes the individuality of this architecture attractive. It is a wire basket called a "gabion" that is packed with stones and stacked on the outer wall that forms the façade! This "gabion" was devised for the foundation of river construction. We use it for the exterior of buildings. Actually, this has various effects! The stuffed stones block the sunlight, but let the air through and control the room temperature and humidity.

The stones that are packed inside are in harmony with the surrounding landscape by using the fresh greenish blackish stones of the local basalt. And the stones in the cage have a place to transmit light on the wall by adjusting the density of the stones according to the purpose of the room. As a result, light shines through the gap during the day and the light inside leaks out at night. This is pretty beautiful! I wonder if there is such an architectural solution! !! It's interesting that the functions and roles of the winery are transformed into the surface design. The heavy stone material makes the architecture transparent by this method. The seemingly contradictory part is also interesting. It is made up of "transparent walls" packed with stones.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Eberswalde technical school library

The Eberswalde Technical School is divided into groups of buildings built in the 19th century, but they vary greatly in size and style. They are located on a beautiful, old layout of trees and a small river, Schwerze and an almost rectangular site. Before World War II, this idyllic place was an excellent forestry training center, and at the end of this century it is to regain its former importance.
Library expansion and new laboratory buildings are important items in the process of improving the infrastructure of technical schools. The two corners of the beautiful block are still unconstructed and the placement of the two new elements was mandated to be based on the existing urban structure with the free layout of different types of buildings.
The new library is a simple rectangular structure with three similar stories for a free access library. Tables, chairs and shelves have regular repetitive arrangements. The glass-enclosed landscape connects this new structure to a historic building where administrative staff work and books are stored.
The exterior of the building is reminiscent of a warehouse structure formed by three stacked containers. This effect appears to separate the story between them due to the wide glass grooves that run around the façade. Sunlight without clear reflections penetrates deep into the building through these large slashes. The small rectangular openings are arranged according to the individual workplace and essentially provide a view and spatial orientation to the outside.
Prefabricated concrete panels resemble grooved window glass belts and are engraved thanks to our professional experience in screen printing. The print motif is a photograph discovered by artist Thomas Raff in a magazine he has accumulated over the years in his private collection. From this collection, he chose the right motif and placed it on a horizontal belt running around the façade. The imprint of the entire façade unifies the surface. The difference between concrete and glass seems to be cancelled.
Construction of the building was delayed several times for financial reasons and eventually came to fruition on a very tight budget. Unfortunately, the original suggestions and drawings from Herzog & de Meuron for the interior of the library were not used, so the furniture and materials were selected based on the catalog.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Prada Aoyama

Due to its characteristic form, Prada Building attracted a shocking topic as soon as it was completed. Originally, Herzog was good at designing the surface layer, but this building has newly developed that design. It used to be really "superficial design": graphical, but in this building we integrate it with the structure and project it closely into the interior space. In addition, Mr. Masayoshi Nakai of Takenaka Corporation, who designed the structure of this building, won the work award of the Japan Structural Engineers Association: JSCA for his achievements.

The diagonal grid that characterizes the appearance is not just a façade: a decoration, but a main structure that supports the building. The diagonal lattice structure is a structural form that has been used for high-rise buildings overseas since ancient times. Norman Foster's St. Mary Axville (Swiss Re), which was recently completed in London and has become a hot topic, has a similar diagonal lattice structure. The diagonal grid acts as a pillar that supports the load of the floor, etc., and at the same time, as shown in Fig. 1, it also acts as a brace that resists horizontal force because it forms a triangular truss with the floor. It is a very efficient structure. (Fig. 2) Although it seems like a lot of good things, this structure has some major drawbacks when used in Japan.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Laban Dance Center

It was a development site around the Laban Dance Center in London. Laban Dance Center . That is Labanotation. A work by Herzog & de Meuron that keeps the crying child silent. It can be said that it is not a crow's nest, but an aniki of a bird's nest.
After the war, the dance studio founded by Rudolf von Laban, formerly located in Southeastern New Cross, moved to a development site in the Greenwich area of southeast London in 2002. It makes me think about the change from water transportation to land transportation, air transportation, redevelopment of the former factory site, and so on.
Now, like a duo dancer in a temporary enclosure,
A strategy to establish a new city identity at the Laban Center.

The volume is covered with a translucent polycarbonate that is painted with gradation only on the inside. As a result, the dull reflection effect of this material is maintained, and the facial expression changes depending on the position and angle of the viewpoint. By having a space with the internal space as a double skin, the light generated from it becomes more abstract. The soft impression and texture of the material itself and these operations eliminate the pressure of the architectural volume.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Laban Dance Center

It was a development site around the Laban Dance Center in London. Laban Dance Center . That is Labanotation. A work by Herzog & de Meuron that keeps the crying child silent. It can be said that it is not a crow's nest, but an aniki of a bird's nest.
After the war, the dance studio founded by Rudolf von Laban, formerly located in Southeastern New Cross, moved to a development site in the Greenwich area of southeast London in 2002. It makes me think about the change from water transportation to land transportation, air transportation, redevelopment of the former factory site, and so on.
Now, like a duo dancer in a temporary enclosure,
A strategy to establish a new city identity at the Laban Center.

The volume is covered with a translucent polycarbonate that is painted with gradation only on the inside. As a result, the dull reflection effect of this material is maintained, and the facial expression changes depending on the position and angle of the viewpoint. By having a space with the internal space as a double skin, the light generated from it becomes more abstract. The soft impression and texture of the material itself and these operations eliminate the pressure of the architectural volume.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

IKMZ Library of the Brandeburg University

According to the proposal of architect Herzog & de Meuron, announced in 1993, it was proposed to place two rectangular buildings on the west side of the university town. One is the library and the other is the main lecture hall of the university. These areas of the university, also used by Cottbus residents, will be part of the city. However, when the project was revived in 1998, it was the main auditorium and remained elsewhere on the campus. Architects conclude that the need for different types of construction for libraries conveys the new spirit of the university and is a breakthrough solo in the surrounding urban architecture that is related to the environment in many different ways. rice field. Completed in 2004, it is a reserve of knowledge with an organic, bright color inside. The amoeba-shaped plants appear to breed with the flow of the surrounding landscape, wondering if it is purely the result of accidental artistic inspiration and the expression of the architect's personal emotions. , Makes the viewer wonder.
At first glance, it may seem like a complete coincidence, but upon closer inspection, we can see that its composition is a useful purpose for various movement flows. The development of the project had working models and motion sequences to test its quality, especially its ability to reorganize and reconstruct urban spaces.
Wavy wall and floor sections of various sizes create a multi-line spatial facet site with continuous flow. Mobile printing stands out on both sides through light-colored spiral staircases such as floors and pillars.

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Beijing National Stadium "Bird's Nest"

Beijing National Stadium场; pinyin : Běijīng guójiā tǐyùchǎng), the People's Republic of China , Beijing of an athletic field, and is the largest stadium in China. It was the main stadium of the Beijing Olympics. In Japan, it is also written as a national stadium.

It was the main stadium of the Beijing Olympics.
In Japan, it is also written as a national stadium.
In 2002, at the international architectural design competition held by the Chinese government, Arup was in charge of structural design for the Swiss architect unit Herzog & de Meuron, and Li Xinggang of the Chinese Institute of Architectural Design was the chief designer on the Chinese side. The English version), a proposal in which Chinese contemporary architect Ai Weiwei cooperated as an art advisor was adopted. Because of its unique shape, its nickname is "Bird's Nest". The size is 330m x 220m and the height is 69.2m. The total construction cost is 3.5 billion yuan. .. The athletics stadium "Beijing National Stadium (Bird's Nest)" designed by Herzog & de Meuron in Beijing, China!
The building features a façade that looks like it is wrapped in an iron structure, and has a bird's nest-like impact design.
Beijing Olympics main star

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◆◆ Herzog & de Meuron

Elbphilharmonie Hamburg

A concert hall in the HafenCity district of Hamburg , Germany , which opened in January 2017. "Elbe" means the river Elbe facing HafenCity. By the completion of the hall, NDR Erb Philharmonic Orchestra (NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra, formerly known as: North German Radio Symphony Orchestra) became the new home of the.

Old warehouse " wharf plans to established a new concert hall at the top of the warehouse A (Kaispeicher A)", is in charge of architectural design Switzerland - Basel of Herzog & de Meuron [2] [3] , construction skilled in the art Hohhotifu ( English version ). Nagata Acoustics is also involved in acoustic design from Japan [4] . When completed, the height will be 110m, and it will be the tallest building in Hamburg for people to live in.

It is seen as a scandalous business due to huge cost increases and significant delays in construction. The initial estimated budget for the project was 77 million euros, which the city of Hamburg was supposed to bear, but in 2007 the city settled on 114 million euros to support the construction costs. After several negotiations, the city agreed with the general contractor Hochtief in December 2012 that the total final construction cost (including planning costs) would be 575 million euros. On April 23, 2013, Hamburg Mayor Olaf Scholz announced to taxpayers (citizens) that the total cost of the project would be 789 million euros. [5] The completion of the building was originally planned for 2010, but was often postponed. The topping-out ceremony was held in May 2010 after a three-year construction period. Construction work was completed in October 2016, and the public plaza between the old and new buildings was open to the public from November 2016.

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◆◆ Gigon & Goya

Liner Museum

The museum opened in 1998. Located in a very interesting 1,644 sqm / 17,700 sq ft building designed by the Swiss company Gigon & Guyer, it is easily identifiable by its serrated roof and metal appearance. The architect designed the museum's exhibition space as a collection of 10 small to medium-sized rooms, each 30-50 square meters, to accommodate artwork of various types and sizes. The Museum of Fine Arts Appenzell also has a relatively large entrance hall that can also be used as a reading room, a small video room, a multipurpose space for shops, conferences, lectures and presentations.
The exterior is reminiscent of Appenzell's traditional countryside architecture, with the entire building covered with satin stainless steel iron plates and a zigzag roof.

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◆◆ Gigon & Goya

Swiss Museum of Transport

This museum is located in Lucerne, Switzerland. Architectural design office "Gigon & Guyer" was founded in Zurich in 1989 by Swiss-born architect Annette Gigon and American-born architect Mike Guyer. Prior to becoming independent, he gained experience in architectural firms such as Herzog & de Meuron. The works of these two architects from the ETH Zurich are world-famous and have been featured in a number of specialized magazines. In particular, the Kirchner Museum in Davos (1992), the Winterthur Museum (1995), the Appenzel Museum (1998), and the entrance and hall of the Transport Museum in Luzern (2009) have a good reputation for museum architecture. The most famous of his recent works is Zurich's Prime Tower (2011). With a height of 126 meters and 36 floors, this skyscraper is the tallest building in Switzerland.

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◆◆ Alberto Campo Baeza

The House of the Infinite

Mosquito disk to wonderful places like the earthly paradise, we are infinite of the sea, we have built a infinite plane facing the most extreme house in made so far. A stone platform appears at the edge of the Atlantic Ocean, where the ocean connects the new and old continents. Where all ships from the Mediterranean pass and they pass by on their way to the Atlantic Ocean. There, I built a house like a pier facing the sea. A house that is a podium crowned on a horizontal surface. In this echoing horizontal plane, naked and naked, we face the distant horizon tracked by the setting sea. Like sand, an infinite plane facing the infinite sea, a high horizontal plane built in travertine, Rome. There is nothing better or less. To embody this high horizontal plane, which is the main living room of the house, we built a large box with a frontage of 20 meters and a depth of 36 meters. And under the first 12 meters, we excavated the second floor in solid rock to develop the entire living space. The Romans were there centuries ago. Boronia is just a stone's throw from the ruins of a Roman fishing factory where they produced germs and built temples on their gods. To their honor, we built our house in travertine, Rome, like the stone Acropolis.

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