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Alvar Aalto​ Alvar Aalto

Alvar Aalto (Alvar Aalto), real name Fugo Alvar Henrik Aalto, is a world-famous architect , city planner and designer born in Finland in the 20th century. His activities range from architecture to furniture , design of daily necessities such as glass tableware , and painting . Along with Gunnar Asplund in Sweden, he was one of the most influential modern architects in Scandinavia and is known for his human approach to modernism.

The portrait was drawn on the 50 Finnish Markka banknote that was used until the introduction of the euro.

[ Alvar Aalto ]

Capital City of Alvar Aalto's architecture

[Jyväskyla Workers' Hall 1924]

Jyvaskyla workers hall is the first public facility of a large project that was designed to take the Alvar Aalto just starting to work. Designed from 1924, the building was completed the following year. This is the building that became the foothold of Aalto's architect, and is considered to be a typical architecture of his classical style era. It is also very valuable as a historical architecture of the time. Already protected as an important building in the early 1970s, the Central Finnish Province decided to protect this building in 1978 and was placed under the protection of the Finnish government in 1986.

The roadside side of the building is made up of columns and glass walls , behind which are restaurants and cafes. From the second floor, you can take a monument-like staircase to the outside of the building through the lobby on the lower floor. There are few windows on the second floor and there is a large hall for political events and theater. Aino and Alvar Aalto also designed the interior and lighting fixtures for this building. Performances at the Jyväskylä Workers' Theater and the Jyväskylä Municipal Theater used the stage of the Workers' Hall until the completion of the new Municipal Theater in 1982. Currently, it is mainly used for meetings and parties.

[Arayalvi Hospital 1924]

The city of Alvar Aalto has a wide range of Alvar Aalto architecture in the beautiful nature of Alvar Aalto, where Alvar Aalto spent the summer in his childhood and used to live in his youth. It ranges from his early work to the last work of his design firm. In the heart of Aaljarvi, you can see Aalto's first public architecture during his school days, through the " white era ", to the final work of Aalto Architects. In and around the administrative and cultural center of Arayalvi, there are a total of 11 buildings, including the recently restored house designed by Aalto for his younger brother, Villa Vinora.

[ Vyborg Library 1927 ]

At the architectural competition , the design proposal of architect Alvar Aalto was selected as the first prize. Aart has submitted and approved an L-shaped plan. In 1933, the planned construction site for the library was decided, and on October 5, the same year, Aart and his wife Aino started designing for the third time with Didrik Darberg, and a new plan was submitted on December 14. Has been done. The corrugated, curved wooden ceiling found in the Vipuri Library, completed in 1935, is a catalyst for Aart's unique modernism by using wood, a traditional Finnish material that contradicts the modernist space. The use of curves and wood has also become one of Aart's styles.

During World War II , a grenade damaged the outer wall of the auditorium and was renovated as the city's central library from 1955 to 1962 by Pyotr Rosenbrume and others. The refurbishment at this time did not refer to the design documents by Aart.

[ Paimio Sanatorium 1928 ]

Finnish sanatorium ( tuberculosis sanatorium ). The building is located in Paimio , Turku County , Southwest Finland , and was designed by architect Alvar Aalto. Early works were based on neoclassicalism, such as Jyväskylä's Workers' Hall, but the style changed from the Trun Sanomato newspaper, which was designed around the same time, to modernist style. This work is one of the works that triggered the rise of modernist architecture in Scandinavia. At the same time, he was selected as a lifetime member of CIAM (International Conference on Modern Architecture), became acquainted with Walter Gropius , Le Corbusier and others, and spent his life creating human modern architecture. Currently, it is used as a general hospital attached to the University of Turku. It was built in a deep wooded forest near Turku by an architectural style called functionalism. In 1928, the guidelines for the architectural competition were announced, and in 1929, the design proposal by Aart was selected as the first prize. Construction began in 1929 and was completed in 1933. Aalto and his wife, Aino is, "for the sake of this sanatorium Paimio chair called the" easy chair has produced a

There is a 6-story ward on the south side of the entrance building, and each ward faces the southeast, so you can bathe in the morning sun while avoiding the west sun. The eaves of the carriage provided at the main entrance are intentionally designed to be asymmetrical.

The windows of the hospital ward are designed in a grid pattern. A glass-enclosed elevator shaft is installed at the end of the hospital ward. On the east side of the hospital room building, there is an outside air bath building. On the wall of the corridor side of the sickroom building, horizontal continuous windows, which is one of the five principles of modern architecture advocated by Le Corbusier , are adopted. On the top floor, there is a terrace for sunbathing and outdoor air bathing.

On the north side of the entrance building, there is a cafeteria building, a doctor building, a service building, and a car garage. The dining room has a high ceiling and large windows on the south side to allow sufficient sunlight. The white cylinder attached to the chimney in the service building is a device that used the heat of the chimney to heat water.

[Alvar Aalto House 1935]

In 1934 Aino and Alvar Aalto bought land in the natural setting of Richtier Street in the Munkiniemi district of Helsinki and began designing their homes. Completed in 1936, the building became the home and atelier of the Aaltos. The couple used natural materials and made a simple design to softly express modern architecture. By designing my home, I was able to try out various materials and construction methods.

Until 1955, when the atelier was completed on Tirimaki Street in the same district, the building was used as Aalto's design office. Alvar Aalto lived in this house until his death in 1976, after which his second wife, Elissa, and his relatives lived. Protected by the Building Protection Act, the building is now one of the museums owned by the Alvar Aalto Foundation and is available on guided tours throughout the year. There is also a museum shop in the house.

[ Alvar Aalto House ]

The Aalto House & Studio Aalto: Building Houses That Become Ruins

[Villa Mairea 1937]

By using wood, which is a traditional Finnish material that contradicts the space of modernism, we promote the ideal way of modernism unique to Aart. It is a fireplace part famous for Aalto's organic design. What fascinated me at Villa Mairea was how to show the continuous spaces and how to approach each space from the entrance. I think that the way I look at this space has a lot to do with the housing design I design. It is a continuous space from the entrance to the living room, study, and dining room on the first floor, but the switching is made to feel by "material", "organic line (curved surface) waist wall", and "step". The study is partitioned by an open wall at the top, but the entrance, living room, dining room, study, and stairs leading upstairs are in a continuous space. The connection is beautiful, and everywhere is a comfortable space. It feels like it is continuous with the external space. Thin trees line up irregularly on the ceiling, and even the pillars of the structure look like part of it, making the interior feel like a forest. The approach from the entrance to the living room is really beautiful.

[ Säynätsalo Office 1950 ]

The village office of Säynätsalo is a building in Säynätsalo in the city of Jyvaskyla in Central Finland , Finland. Designed by architect Alvar Aalto , it was mainly used as the government building of the village office until 1993, and since 1994 it has been used as a multipurpose facility with a library and offices.

It is a three-story building with a total area of approximately 1,700.  It is a square meter. A U-shaped government office building is set up on the north side and a rectangular library building is set up on the south side so as to surround the central square. According to Aart's design, the government office building consists of a parliamentary hall on the east side, offices on the north side, and staff housing on the west side. The parliamentary hall is located on the 3rd floor. The library building has a library on the 2nd floor and a store on the 1st floor. The parliamentary hall has about 20 parliamentary seats facing the chairman's seat, and behind it is an audience seat. On the east side of the library building, there is a granite staircase, and up this staircase is the main entrance with a wooden pergola. On the west side of the library building, there is a lawn-covered staircase with soil fixed with wood. The building, reinforced concrete spans and 200,000 red bricks that have been configured with.

[ Summer house 1952 ]

The summer house is a building in Jyvaskyla , Finland . Also known as Aalto Summer House, Aalto Summer House, Murazzaro Experimental House, Koe Taro, etc.

The main building is made of load-bearing bricks and has a square shape with a side of about 14 meters. A square courtyard is set up in the southwestern part, and the remaining L-shaped part is a house. Among the L-shaped, is on the north side of the building living room and dining room are arranged, is on the east side of the building bedroom are arranged. A kitchen and a washroom are located at the corners of the L-shape. The brick walls of the house are painted white only on the outside. In the center of the courtyard is a square fireplace . There is a loft at the top of the living room. From the bedroom window, you can see the tower of the church of Muurame. On the northeast side of the main building, there is a wooden guest room building, and on the east side, there is a storage shed.

[ Cultural House 1952 ]

The House of Culture or Kurturitaro is a building in Finland. Sturenkatu Road in the Aluppira district of Helsinki  Located at address 4. Classified as postwar modernist architecture. Designed by architect Alvar Aalto . Also with the Cultural Center. The main buildings that make up the Cultural Center are the concert hall building and the office building, which are connected by a canopy on the street side of the site and by a lecture room building at the back of the site. The concert hall building spreads out in a fan shape , and has a theater and a restaurant in addition to the concert hall with more than 1,500 seats. The façade of this building is convex and uses special curved bricks developed by Aart. The office building is a five-story building with a conference room and other facilities. This ridge has a rectangular parallelepiped shape and is finished with a copper plate. The lecture room building is also called the central building and has a lecture room and a lobby. The canopy has a length of about 60 meters, and the pillars that support the canopy are made of exposed rolled steel. The space between the concert hall building and the office building is a courtyard , and in addition to the entrance to the lecture room and club room, there is an entrance to the restaurant. In the courtyard, there is a bronze sculpture by the sculptor Wäinö Aaltonen. This sculpture is in the shape of a hand holding a model of a cultural house.

[Jyvaskyla University of Education 1953]

"Jyväskylä University" has an important role as an educational institution that covers master's programs in Finland. Jyväskylä University, a higher education institution in Jyväskylä, which is closely related to the master of Scandinavian architecture, Alvar Aalto, also has many architectures by Aalto, and is still active and loved by many students. Aalto won the 1951 design competition and designed seven facilities, including the main building and library.

[Aalto University / Helsinki University of Technology 1955]

A university with most of its bases in Helsinki , Finland. The university is named after Alvar Aalto , a well-known Finnish architect and designer. He was a former Helsinki University of Technology graduate and also designed most of the main campus, the Otaniemi campus.

[Louis Carre House 1956]

Aalto designed a house with a large sloping roof using blue Normandy slate to blend in with the landscape of the land. Chartres limestone is used for some of the walls, and white plastered bricks and marble are also used for the façade. Originally, the main purpose of this villa was to display works of art owned by art dealers for celebrity customers in the French high society, so the room was divided into a public zone for entertainment and a private zone such as a bedroom. I am.

The spacious entrance hall has a large panel for displaying works of art. The wooden ceiling, made by a Finnish carpenter, is designed with a natural and free corrugation , which is symmetrical to the stepped wooden ceiling in the living room. One side of the wall is a large window, from which you can enjoy a magnificent view of the outside.

[ Church of Seinajoki 1958 ]

Lakeuden Risti Church is a church in Seinajoki , Finland. It is one of the buildings that make up the Aart Center, a group of buildings in Seinajoki. The church began construction in 1957 and was completed in 1960. The floor area of the church is over 1600 square meters. The hall is in the shape of a cathedral , 47 meters long and has 1200 seats. The closer you are to the altar, the narrower the passage and the lower the floor, and the back is about 60 centimeters higher. Gray and white Italian marble is used for the altar floor, altar, and pulpit . The altar cloth was designed by Ellen Alicante, a textile designer from Seinajoki.

The sides of the building are regularly lined with elongated windows. The clock tower is 65 meters high, and at the foot of the tower is the sculpture " Dove in the Fountain " designed by Aart.

There is a small chapel on the north side of the church, and the painting on the window titled "Southern Ostrobothnia Stream" is by Aart.

[Wolfsburg Cultural Center 1958]

The building was designed as a facility for the City Library, Adult Education Center and Youth Club. These three different facilities have skillfully combined Sacchan under one roof, each facility on the other side of the building front, such as the sculpture has been placed while maintaining their own space. Currently, only the municipal library is used in the same way as it was at that time. In addition to the library, various business facilities such as restaurants and Aalto are now housed in this building.

The unique shape of the Cultural Center is one of the features that can be seen at a glance. The front of the building has a very geometric design . Multiple hexagonal buildings are gathered together to form one building.

[Wolfsburg Parish Center 1959]

Alvar Aalto's comprehensive facility in Wolfsburg, Germany, includes the Church of the Holy Spirit, the bell tower, the parish facility, the minister's house, and the kindergarten , all of which are designed to come together to form a group of buildings. It has been. Each building is arranged so as to surround the courtyard, and the surrounding area is shaped like a back. The most striking feature of the church is the vaulted ceiling from the floor behind the altar. Inside the building, five sets of wooden boards cover the entire ceiling in the shape of a fan on this vaulted ceiling. This is basically a sound effect , but it also symbolizes the wrapping hand to protect the worshipers.

The side windows that reach the ceiling of the church are also uniquely shaped. These windows prevent the sun in the morning and evening from directly hitting the believers' seats. On the right side facing the altar is a pentagonal baptistery with a skylight, which looks like a tower covered with copper plates from the outside. The belfry of the church, which is 32 meters high, has two parallel thin concrete plate-shaped columns and four shelves between them, each with one bell. I am.

[ Finlandia Hall 1962 ]

Finlandia Hall is an art facility located in Helsinki , Finland . Finlandia Hall's location is based on Aalto's 1960s city plan for central Helsinki. The building was planned to be part of the cultural architecture around Toro Bay. The unrealized Aalto city plan was to create a gateway to Helsinki on the other side of the bay, so the front of the building is facing that direction.

Marble is used for the outer and inner walls , which is the intention of Aalto, who was interested in the culture of the Mediterranean countries. When it comes to interior design, furniture and lighting fixtures were designed with the utmost care in the unity of the entire building.

[Paris Church of Detomerode 1965]

The Cultural Center , which began designing in the German industrial city of Wolfsburg , and the Church of the Holy Spirit , built in 1960. In addition, in 1963 Aalto was appointed to plan the construction of a church in the small residential area of Detomellode on the outskirts of the town. The construction site was between a shopping center and a park where many people come and go. The covered entrance porch faces the shopping center square, as the church was also intended to be used as a venue for events such as concerts for non-religious purposes. There are 250 seats, but up to 600 seats can be installed if desired.

The Detomerode church is shaped like a V-shaped with a cut-off tip, and the roof has a slight slope. It features 19 circular acoustic reflectors with a diameter of 250 cm mounted on the ceiling, giving the impression that these acoustic reflectors are floating in the air. Below the altar is the crypt, which is used for private church events such as baptisms and weddings. To the right of the glossy front entrance stands a distinctive bell tower with twelve concrete columns of the same height. The bells are installed side by side. The exterior walls of this church are made of Carrara marble and have no windows. The windowless design is a symbol that keeps the hustle and bustle of the shopping center out of the church.

[Mount Angel Monastery Library 1970]

A small town, about an hour's drive from Portland, is home to the architecture of Alvar Aalto, a master of Scandinavian architecture. It is the "Mount Angel Monastery Library " built in a seminary with about 150 students. The architecture stood quietly on a hill through coniferous trees like Scandinavia.

[Essen's Opera House]

Among some of the buildings built based on Aalto's posthumous Aalto masterplan ,? It's also true that some buildings make you want to mark them. In his book ALVAR AALTO, Aalto research authority Yoran Siltz points out that " Essen's opera house is partially lacking in the genius Aalto's aura ." However, as can be seen from the design process, Elissa Aalto was involved as an "artistic adviser" based on Aalto's careful plan until the second implementation design, and thanks to H. Deilmann's devoted efforts. I think that a very dense Aalto design has been realized. Especially in the hall and foyer, I secretly think that I can see the interior space that far surpasses Finlandia Hall.

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