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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the 20 century of modernist architecture representative, the German born architect . Along with Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright , the three great masters of modern architecture, or Walter Gropius, are considered to be the four great masters. Known for the slogans "Less is more." And " God is in the detail, " the architect contributed to the establishment of the concept of modernist architecture. Is. He presented the concept of universal space, which means that the homogeneous structure of rigid frame structure with columns and beams allows all functions inside.

[ Mies van der Rohe ]

Mies van der Rohe. Chicago. Plano

[Brick rural housing plan 1924 ]

This self-supporting wall also serves as an outer wall that separates the inside and the outside, and also serves as an internal partition, and further extends to the outside to divide the external space in the same way. Boundary between external and internal

The first point is the double wire of glass. There is only one place on the upper left of the floor plan where the double line disappears along with the line indicating the roof. If there is no glass here, is this courtyard outside or inside? How far has it spread? Tegetthoff points out that the drawings may be incomplete, and says that Arthur Drexler, who knitted the "Mies van der Rohe Archive", is something wrong. Imagine what kind of space Mies would have imagined if he didn't put in the glass intentionally, and the possibilities of the space would be much wider.
The second point is that the floor plan of the brick country house plan has a clue to read the scale of the house. It is a fireplace and stairs. In particular, the fireplace is not only functional but also mentally central to the house. The black lumps of the elongated square fireplace are located near the center of the floor plan and in the service building on the right side. They tighten the screen as a weight in the drawing. This proportion and the positional relationship on the plan are similar to the light box in the plan view of the Barcelona Pavilion, so if you look closely, you will feel as if the fireplace is a light box. In fact, the fireplace is the path of Santa Claus, but it's also a "place you can't go" on a daily basis. However, the fireplaces in this drawing are all painted black and seem to be filled with bricks to the inside, so this point is the opposite of the light box, a "place where you can't go" that does not allow light to pass through. .. The black mass is because it is trying to assimilate into a brick wall, but its proportions will be sufficient to make the viewer perceive it as a fireplace. Through this fireplace, we will naturally see the scale of a person in this drawing and imagine the space as a house in our minds.

[​​ Relationship between perspective and floor plan of Mies van der Rohe's tiled rural housing plan]

By Junichi Sano-2012 [1] Introduction [2] Remaining perspectives and floor plans [3] Mysterious problems found in perspectives and floor plans​ [4] Relationship between perspective and floor plan and history of appearance of floor plan

[​​ Mies van der low for the golden ratio lurking in Brick rural housing draft plan view of the handle ]

Written by Junichi Sano-2012 [1] Introduction [2] Golden ratio hidden in the floor plan of the brick rural housing [3] Analysis of the original floor plan [4] Analysis of the reconstructed floor plan [5] Of the brick rural housing plan The meaning of the golden ratio

[ Barcelona Pavilion 1929 ]

It was built as the German Pavilion at the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. It was not an exhibition facility for the general public, but a reception hall for welcoming the King of Spain. A ceremony was held with the King of Spain one week after the opening of the exposition. Known as a masterpiece of modern design, the Barcelona Chair was designed by Mies for the museum. The pavilion was demolished shortly after the expo and iron and stone were sold .

When you go up the platform of travertine, a wide water surface spreads out. Large gravel is laid on the bottom of the large pond. The main part of the pavilion is a structure in which eight steel cruciform iron pillars support a thin roof that extends horizontally. Architectural critic Robin Evans said there seemed to be pillars to keep the roof floating in the air. The cross shape makes it look thin , and the mirror finish makes it inconspicuous like a sash. The stone / glass walls that are independent of the structure are freely arranged at positions that are completely offset from the pillars of the structure, and the white plate penetrates horizontally to the inside. It forms a fluid space both inside and outside . Mies designs the flow lines of visitors with these few walls. Onyx , green Tinian marble , travertine and other expensive materials are used for the stone. Near the center is the most characteristic onyx wall . At the end of the glass in the back is a water surface surrounded by walls on three sides, and a nude statue by sculptor Georg Kolbe is placed. The regular composition of eight pillars standing on the platform is reminiscent of classicism represented by Sinkel. It has been pointed out that Frank Lloyd Wright 's influence on the fluid space and De Stijl 's influence on the abstract composition. Due to the nature of the exhibition facility, it was freely designed, but it has much in common with the residential work Villa Tugendhat (1930) of the same period. The spatial composition of both works led to the later universal space.

[Modern Architecture: Abstract Architecture]
1. White rectangular parallelepiped architecture of concrete structure or a combination of white geometric cubes . ( Savoir House )
2. stop to whiten the outer wall in its deployment, Toka concrete Uchihanashi, stone Ru and paste fine, gray building that is a combination of geometric cube. ( La Tourette Convent )
3. A curved surface is introduced into exposed concrete. ( Ronchamp Chapel )
4. Steel structure The outer wall of a rectangular parallelepiped is a glass curtain wall . (Currently the most popular architecture)
5. Construction method with board walls The most abstract building method . (Barcelona Pavilion)
What you can see here is that 1 to 4 are the modeling of a solid mass, but 5 is a big difference in the composition of the board. It seems to be the difference between the European view of architecture and the Japanese view of architecture of planes and lines.

[ Barcelona Pavilion ]


[ Villa Tugendhat 1930 ]

Villa Tugendhat is a mansion built in Brno , Czechoslovakia . One of the masterpieces of German modernist architect Mies van der Rohe , it is the most important and most beautiful of the functionalist buildings. Originally it is built on a slope overlooking the city. It is a two-story house with an entrance and bedroom on the upper floor facing the street, and a living room, dining room, and study on the lower floor facing the garden. Through the design of this mansion , Mies van der Rohe developed the concept of "free plane" , one of the five principles of modern architecture. That is, the space associated with the function (dining room, study, salon, etc.) is determined without partitioning . The building was made of steel and, like the Barcelona Pavilion , the pillars were cruciform and had a stainless steel hood. The walls were freely arranged at positions offset from the pillars of the structure, enabling more free space design. The materials were carefully selected, travertine was used for the floor, and the partition walls were lined with thin sheets of high-grade wood such as lemon and ebony. This wall is to block the direct sunlight from the garden to the study, and the wall itself is made of monolith. The façade facing the garden is entirely glazed for maximum light intake. A large group of flat glass is used for this glass. Mies van der Rohe is particularly well known for his Tugendhat chair , the Bruno chair, which even designed the furniture himself.

[ Villa Tugendhat ]

Tugendhat 2017, BRNO, der Rohe, UNESCO

[ Lake Shore Drive Apartment 1951 ]

Mies advocated the concept of " universal space " and designed the Lake Shore Drive Apartment in downtown Chicago. It is a space concept that allows the internal space to be used freely without being limited by structural materials such as pillars and walls, and is a method of creating a space that allows control of air conditioning and sunshine as much as possible. Architect Hiroshi Hara translates it as "homogeneous space ", which is a very suitable concept for office buildings, and it is no exaggeration to say that various modern architectures follow this concept. No. Le Corbusier also advocated the "domino system, " but Mies showed a more transparent and homogeneous architecture. It is located along Lakeshore Drive , one of the busiest highways in Chicago. It is a twin building made of iron and glass , which is an epoch-making curtain wall construction method at that time. The façade of the building (main frame of concrete covered with steel frame) (marion of H steel running in the vertical direction) (outer frame of aluminum sash) (intermediate transom of aluminum sash) and the elements with strength and weakness are like textiles The composition is lined up and rich in variety.

[ Farnsworth House 1951 ]

It was built as a weekend home for Mr. This Farnsworth. The Farnsworth House was a work to express the grand concept of Mies' " universal space". This concept later expanded in the 1950s to the form of numerous office and residential skyscrapers.

The Farnsworth House is a high-floor building with a floor slab lifted about 1.5 m above the ground because it was a site that was rarely hit by floods in a green area with a river flowing in front of it, with corn fields spreading around it. It has become. This creates a floating feeling and a view from the inside of the Farnsworth House made of iron and glass. The horizontal lines , including the porch in front of the house, are designed to spread horizontally and harmonize with the surrounding environment. Philip Johnson's < Glass House > is very similar. Johnson's glass house touches the ground and blurs the boundary between the structure and the glass frame .

The two pouches add asymmetry to a simple rectangular house. The two pouches also largely determine the flow of visitors. The floor-to-roof beams are supported between the columns and are skillfully joined, but there is little feeling that the columns support both the roof and the floor.

[ Farnsworth House ]

[4K] Mies van der Rohe "Farnsworth House": Architectural Tour

[ Illinois Institute of Technology Crown Hall 1956 ]

H-steel columns and beams exposed on the outside, which realized a space without columns inside. The beams that support the long span are unusually tall relative to their width, so they even look unstable. On the other hand, the pillars are thinner than expected, and they have been devised to suppress the contrast with the H-beams of the exterior Marion. The found size is about 305 mm, and it is aligned with beams and columns. I think the reason why the aspect ratio of the beam is not normal is because I gave priority to this finding.

The entrance span is all clear glass. It looks simple and has a wide variety of components . The proportions must have been scrutinized, such as changing the height of the glass on the top and bottom, and dividing only the lower glass into two with vertical bars. I think it is calculated including the cable position of the blinds. It is a copy of the crown hall, or a mass-produced building, and it can be seen that Mies aimed for a space that anyone could make. I feel that Mies' ideal, which advocated the concept that architecture can be mass-produced if the space is flexible, has been realized.

[ Illinois Institute of Technology Crown Hall]

Mies van der Rohe: Crown Hall, Chicago

[ Seagram Building ]

Shi Guramu Building is, New York is built in the midtown of the skyscraper it is. It was built in 1958 as Seagram 's American headquarters building, designed by Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson. It has 38 floors and is 156.97 meters high. It is designated as a National Register of Historic Places in the United States.

The interior space of the office is lined with unpartitioned floors, and was intended to be freely partitioned according to the purpose. The exterior was designed with repeated glass windows and bronze frames. The style of international style had a great influence on American architecture. It was to express the structure of the building outside. The large building at that time was built with a steel frame, and a glass wall hung from it. Mies wanted to expose this steel frame, but the structural material had to be covered with a fireproof material in case of fire, and in many buildings concrete covered iron columns and beams. Mies only tried to avoid making the structural material completely invisible, and instead of hiding the true structure, I-beam-shaped bronze material was placed on the surface and supported by a reinforced concrete shell from the inside, and the building I tried to suggest the structure. This bronze material runs horizontally a lot like a partition between the glass on the surface, and can be seen well from the outside.

It was built to be a large setback from the street and a gathering place, resulting in a very popular space. In addition, we escaped the diagonal line regulation and realized a high-rise box-shaped building. It is said that modernism was completed at Seagram Building. Equal arrangement of pillars , proportions , pilotis , relationships with the plaza , abstract boxes , etc. Everything fits the destination of modernism and has a certain degree of perfection in the aesthetics of measy proportions.  The only thing left is to play a variation.

[ Berlin State Museums]  New National Gallery ]

It is a new national gallery located near Potsdamer Platz. This architecture is one of Mies' masterpieces, which has the classicist tradition of Sinkel's Artes Museum, but at the same time has the cutting-edge newness of modernist architecture. A huge lattice beam with a side of 65m is supported by eight steel columns. It seems that the heavy roof of the steel frame is floating in the air.

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