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Le Corbusier

An architect born in Switzerland and mainly active in France . His real name is Charles Edouard Janure. It is said to be a master of modernist architecture, and is positioned as one of the "three great masters of modern architecture" along with Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe (sometimes regarded as the four great masters including Walter Gropius).

Le Corbusier was born as the second son of Eduard, the father of a clock face craftsman, and Marie, the mother of a piano teacher. He studied sculpture and metal engraving at a local school of decorative arts that trains watchmakers to take over the family business, but has no specialized college education. Le Corbusier intended to go on the path of a watchmaker, but at that time the watch industry was declining, and Le Corbusier had a serious handicap as a watchmaker with very weak eyesight and required precision processing. As I was carrying it on my back, I gradually began to seek another path.

At the recommendation of the principal who discovered the talent of Le Corbusier while attending art school, he worked with architect Rene Chapara to design the first house "Fare House". He went to Paris in 1908 and was assigned to the office of Auguste Perret, a pioneer of reinforced concrete architecture, and in 1910 to the office of Peter Behrens , a central figure in the Deutscher Werkbund. However, he learned architecture in the field. From 1911 to half a year, he embarked on a journey eastward from Berlin to Eastern Europe , Turkey , Greece and Italy. After teaching at the La Chaux-de-Fonds art school, in 1914 he announced the "Domino System," a method of building houses using reinforced concrete. He went to Paris in 1917 and worked for a reinforced concrete company for about two years. 1920 to Dada poet Paul Derume, purism of the painter of amédée ozenfant launched the magazine "Resupuri Nouveau" with. From around this time, he used the pseudonym Le Corbusier. In 1922, he set up an office with his cousin Pierre Jeanneret, who worked for Pele. In 1923, he published his book "Aiming for Architecture ", which is a compilation of his articles published in "Respri Nouveau", and attracted the attention of architects all over the world. The phrase "a house is a machine for living" in this book is often quoted as a representative of his architectural ideas.

[ Villa Savoye ]

La Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier (Le Corbusier´s villa Savoye, english captions)

[ Five principles of modern architecture] ]

Los 5 puntos para una nueva arquitectura de Le Corbusier

[National Museum of Western Art ]

The National Museum of Western Art is a World Heritage Site Corbusier Architecture

[Domino System 1914 ] Architectural Thought

The Domino system is a method of building a house that consists of a horizontal slab made of reinforced concrete, a minimum number of columns that support it around it, and a lifting device that allows access to each floor. It laid the foundation for Corbusier's design method. The drawing of the Domino system is particularly famous and plays a role of symbolizing modern architecture , and Le Corbusier continued to spread modern architecture to the world, such as "Housing is a machine for living " and the five principles of modern architecture. He has published a number of quotes and statements that have triggered him, but it can be said that the Domino system has always been at the core of it. On the other hand, the homogeneous space that has been spread all over the world by the Domino system has been criticized many times, and many architects are looking for new architectural forms. The Domino system will enable mass production of buildings, especially apartment buildings, which will lead to subsequent urban development.
After working for a reinforced concrete construction company in Paris, Corbusier launched the magazine "Respri Nouveau" in 1920 (around this time he began working under the pseudonym Le Corbusier instead of his real name).

[ Aiming for architecture 1922 ] Architectural thought

In 1923, he published his book "Aiming for Architecture ", which is a compilation of his articles published in "Respri Nouveau", and attracted the attention of architects all over the world. The phrase "a house is a machine for living " in this book is often quoted as a representative of his architectural ideas.

One of the famous words of Le Corbusier is "a house is a machine for living". Architecture needs to be functional. A ship without the ability to float on water is not a ship, and an airplane without the ability to fly is not an airplane. Similarly, a house that cannot live is not a house.

When talking about architecture, Le Corbusier considers its smallest unit, the plane . Separating the inside and the outside with a single plane is the first step in architecture. When we look at a building, we recognize that it is three-dimensional by light. A solid is composed of a plane that blocks light. Le Corbusier states, " Planes are the foundation. Without planes, there is no greatness of intention or expression, no rhythm, no solids, no ties ." The shape was not created by chance in good architecture. The length of one side of a plane, the length of the radius of the circle when drawing a curve, and the arrangement of circles and squares are all explained geometrically. It has nothing to do with what era it was made in, or how it is categorized as "how many styles" in the history of architecture and art.

Le Corbusier mentions the form. We will explore the perspectives that can be applied to architecture, focusing on the shape of ships, airplanes, and automobiles. There are times when a certain shape created to satisfy a function is touching even without that function. Just as you can imagine the evolutionary process in the form of living things in nature, gain some logical understanding, and still be surprised. In the industries such as ships, airplanes, and automobiles, new problems have been set and solved repeatedly. Le Corbusier also attempts to set challenges for its development in architecture.

[Modern city of 3 million people 1922 ] City planning

In pursuit of order and unity, Le Corbusier has a magnificent skyscraper and abundant open space , feeling the endless admiration and some criticism of Manhattan, which has a completely different landscape from his city (Paris). We built a representative ideal city. This concept was announced at Salon d'Automne in 1922, and the population of 3 million was equivalent to the size of the city of Paris at that time.
The center of the city consists of 24 cross-diameter 60-story buildings (2.4 x 1.5 km), which has a density of 3000 people / ha but a building coverage ratio of only 5%. In the center of the district, there is a transportation center where railway stations and airports (for helicopters) are organized in three dimensions. The diamond-shaped part of the outer circumference of this area is a zigzag-shaped 8-story apartment district (building coverage ratio 15%) with a density of 300 people / ha, and a garden city consisting of independent residences is arranged on the outer circumference. ing. A vast park intrudes into the rectangular urban area consisting of these three districts, and various public facilities are located between the centers of the park. All the main roads running in the four directions of north, south, east and west centering on the transportation center are elevated, and the factory zone is separated from the city area by a green area.

[Vorzan Plan 1925 ] City Planning

The Voisin project was announced at the Esprit Nouveau Pavilion in the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Arts in Paris in 1925. After Le Corbusier's proposal was politely declined by Citroën and Peugeot, Voisin was curiously watching over the city's plans for highways running through the city. This plan is an adaptation of the " Modern City Plan for 3 Million People" produced three years ago for Paris. "The Voisin project in Paris contains two essential new elements. One is a business district and the other is a residential area . The residential area is from Pyramid Street to the Rotary of Champs Elysees and from Saint-Lazare Station to Rue de Rivoli. It extends to the streets. Most of the area that used to be densely populated with middle-class dwellings and is now an office district will be demolished. "

Le Corbusier has set up a huge square in the center of the city. The original concept was a station, with an airport located above it. The main road of this city plan runs from east to west. The 200-meter-high cross-section office towers all have the same shape and are equidistant on both sides of Sevastopol Street. [Emphasis on formal and visual elements (lines, forms, colors, etc.)] It is built according to the composition of formalism. And, in the center of the green space, an uneven-shaped apartment house with a height of about 50 meters will be built. Le Corbusier-style cities are linear rather than ring-shaped. This city plan, which praises a completely traditional communal life, will be used repeatedly by himself in various other works.

The Voisin project also served as the basis for subsequent urban planning studies, which Le Corbusier published monthly in magazines from January 1931 to December 1934, and later his book The Shining City (subtitle). His idea of city planning is developed in the article summarized in "Elements of the doctrine of city planning for machine civilization"). This 345-page text is at the heart of the urban planner's work, which he published in a contemporary architectural magazine at his own expense.

[ Respri Nouveau Hall 1925 ]

What stood out in this exhibition was the less- decorative , modernist Le Corbusier 's Esprit Nouveau Pavilion and the Soviet Union 's Soviet Pavilion designed by constructivist Konstantin Melnikov. Met. Furniture and paintings were also exhibited in these pavilions, but the buildings themselves and the exhibits were simpler and more avant-garde . The architecture without the decorations of Le Corbusier and Melnikov was criticized and acclaimed at the same time. Criticism focused on the fact that these buildings were too "bare " compared to Le Mans' "Collectonur Pavilion" and the Decorative Arts Association's "Embassy of France".

The Esprit Nouveau Pavilion in Le Corbusier was a white box-shaped building with large glass windows and square "holes" on the walls. Inside is a white atrium living room with large windows, a bedroom, a kitchen, etc., and the "hole" is a view of the semi-outdoor terrace under the same roof, which is continuously provided in the living room. rice field. There was no decoration and only geometric shapes were used , but the unevenness and variety of interior spaces when the building was viewed from the outside gave it an expression. It is noteworthy that this pavilion is not only the simplicity of modernist architecture, but also that the wide range of ideas and theories advocated by Le Corbusier were concentrated in this pavilion. "Espri Nouveau" (" Shinshicho ") is the name of a magazine that he first published in 1920 and published papers on architectural thought (these papers were compiled in 1923 into his book " Aiming for Architecture". rice field). "Voazan Plan" (Plan Voisin) has been on display in the hotel. The city plan was to replace the densely populated urban area on the right bank of the Seine with a group of 200m-high glass skyscrapers of the same shape and a cityscape with regular low-rise rectangular apartments. The plan, which later led to a "shining city, " had a major impact on the architectural world, although it never happened in Paris. In addition, the pavilion itself was not designed as a single-family house, but was for one unit, and the plan was to arrange a large number of the same ones side by side and stack them in four tiers to form an apartment divided into one town. This pavilion is the realization of only one unit of an apartment in his larger city plan.

[Shining city 1930 ] City planning

The shining city is an ideal city concept advocated by modernist architect Le Corbusier.

Le Corbusier criticizes the overcrowded and deteriorating modern city and announces plans for a modern city with 3 million people (1922), the Voisin project in Paris (1925) and the shining city (1930). bottom. The Athens Charter , adopted by the CIAM (International Conference on Modern Architecture) in 1933, was in line with the philosophy of a shining city. To build a high-rise building open space ( open space to ensure), street the maintenance and motorway and sidewalk separating the ( walking vehicle separation ). Based on that, it proposes to solve urban problems.

The idea of Le Corbusier was heretical in France at that time and was hardly accepted, but Unité d'Habitation (1952), which was built in various places such as Marseille , is a theory of "shining city". It was one of the practices. It also had a great influence on the idea of city planning in each country such as Brasilia.

[ International Conference on Modern Architecture CIAM 1928 ]

Architect international conference we superimposed the debate about the future of the city and building a collection. It played a major role in the development of modernist architecture. It started in 1928 and was held 11 times in each country by 1959 . The aim is to disseminate the principles of modernist architecture that focus on all major areas of architecture, including landscapes , urban planning , industrial design , and much more.

1st 1928 ( Switzerland ) 24 architects participated

2nd 1929 ( Germany ) "Minimum living housing"

3rd 1930 ( Belgium ) "Reasonable method of placement"

4th 1933 ( Greece ) "Functional City" Athens Charter adopted

The 4th CIAM was held on board a round-trip ship from Marseille to Athens.

5th 1937 ( France ) "Industrialization of architecture" .

6th 1947 ( UK )

7th 1949 ( Italy )

8th 1951 (UK) "City Core"

The 9th 1953 ( France ) Team X was formed (later to become a critic of CIAM).

10th 1956 ( Yugoslavia ) CIAM is considered to be a substantial collapse

11th 1959 ( Netherlands ) CIAM was officially demolished by Team X

CIAM not only stylized the rules of modern architecture, but also had a great influence not only on the building industry but also in terms of incorporating architectural design as an economic and political method for improving the world. In particular, the Athens Charter, which was established at the 4th Conference in 1923, has a great influence on urban planning around the world and is subject to criticism of functionalism. At the 10th conference held in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia in 1981, Team X, a group of young architects led by Alison & Peter Smithson, was dynamic due to criticism of functionalist architecture and city planning. CIAM was virtually dismantled due to internal divisions, such as advocating various architectural and urban plans. Le Corbusier, a key member of CIAM's founding, left the year before, complaining about the increased use of English at meetings.

[Team X]

A group of architects and other participants who gathered at the International Conference on Modern Architecture (CIAM) and caused divisions within CIAM by challenging the doctrinal approach to urbanism.

They are CIAM  Announced ideas that violated the Athens Charter  He said urban areas consisted of communities of varying levels of complexity, emphasizing that each should be treated as a whole. To explain all this graphically, Patrick Geddes prepared the adaptation of the valley section shown in 1909, and the size of each citycity  ,  town  , Villages and settlements ) pointed out that they need to form different habitats and develop at different densities.  ..

Various members of the group are trying to find a modern alternative to traditional elements on Platform Street (  Street deck  ) Ideas developed in various ways. Most of the group members are networks (  web  ), Stem (  stem  ),  cluster  (  cluster  ) Or organized metaphors such as kasbah were used to describe the project.

[ Villa Savoye 1931 ]

Villa Savoye is very different from pre- modernist decorative and heavy Western traditional architecture , using reinforced concrete , a new material at the time, supported by domino slabs and columns , and no beams. By using piloti , it gives the impression that the living area is floating in the air, and the horizontal continuous window not only brightens the room and gives a sense of transparency by taking in plenty of light, but also brightens the room. It is also designed so that the color of sunlight that changes over time shines indoors.

Not only the architecture, but also the furniture is designed to match the atmosphere of Villa Savoye, and there are many Corbusier chairs, which are said to be Le Corbusier's masterpieces.

Le Corbusier showed the five principles of modern architecture at Villa Savoye.

 

The five principles of modern architecture are considered to be the principles of modern architecture, but to be precise, they are the "five points of new architecture."

  1. Piloti  (les pilotis)

  2. Rooftop garden  (le toit-terrasse)

  3. Free blueprint Free plane (le plan libre)

  4. Horizontal continuous window (la fenêtre en bandeau)

  5. Free façade Free elevation (la façade libre)

Consists of.  It was realized at Villa Savoye and more complete at Villa Savoye.

Breaking away from the history of architecture up to that point, he influenced posterity architects through the practice of Le Corbusier's own theory. For Le Corbusier, technology was as influential as it was used in the fields of science and engineering. Villa Savoye embodies the concept that he expressed, "a house is a machine for living."

[ Marseille Unité d'habitation ]

Unite d'Habitation is a series of apartments designed by Le Corbusier . Unité d'Habitation, the French have in the "unity of the residence," the dual meaning of a "unit of residence". When we simply say "Unite d'Habitation", we sometimes refer to the most famous Unite d'Habitation in Marseille .

It is an 8-story, 337-unit, huge condominium that can accommodate up to about 1,600 people, and is a three-dimensional combination of 23 types of various units for 1 to 4 people. The dwelling unit is a maisonette , and the elevator stops every 3rd floor (currently it stops on each floor). Shared facilities are provided on the 7th and 8th floors of the middle floor and on the rooftop. There are stores and post offices on the 7th and 8th floors, and there are nursery schools , gymnasiums , swimming pools, etc. on the rooftop. In 1961, the hotel opened in the then vacant residences on the 3rd and 4th floors, and can still be used by the general public. There are stores and restaurants on the 3rd floor that anyone can use. In addition, anyone can visit the 3rd and 4th floors and the roof terrace (RC) by entering their names at the reception desk at the entrance.  The piloti is a massive model, and the finish of the exposed concrete , which uses a lot of precast concrete , is rough, showing the tendency of brutalist architecture.

The frontage of the dwelling unit is 3.66 meters, but the dimensions of each part are designed in consideration of Modulor and the golden ratio , which are the original dimensional system considering the dimensions of the human body of Kolb.

[Modulor]

Le Corbusier is a sequence of standard dimensions of a building made from the dimensions of the human body and the golden ratio. Modulor is a coined word coined during World War II by Le Corbusier, made from the French module ( module / dimensions ) and Section d'or ( golden section).

Le Corbusier is, of ancient Rome Vitruvius , Leonardo da Vinci of "the human body diagram" (Vitruvian Man) , Leon Battista Alberti false starts looking at the mathematical ratio in the human body from such work, of which the buildings Used to improve functionality. Modulor is based on the dimensions of the human body, the Fibonacci sequence , and the golden ratio. Basically, the height to the fingertips when a person stands and raises one hand (226 cm in the case of "European type") is interrupted by the golden ratio. Le Corbusier describes Modulor as "a range of dimensions that fits the dimensions of the human body and is universally applicable to the design of architecture and other machines."

Le Corbusier actually made a number of designs using Modulor. Proportional layouts such as the window layout of the Chapel of Ronchamp and the Breeze Soleil at the La Tourette Convent are examples of its application. It has also had a great influence on architects around the world, and Kenzo Tange has created a Japanese version of Modulor in Japan as well.

[ Ronchamp Chapel ]

The Chapel of Ronchamp, or the Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, is a Catholic designed by Le Corbusier.  It is a Dominican chapel ( cathedral ).

exterior

A undulating roof with a shell structure , a huge outer wall mass that supports it to float, and an internal space where many rays of light shine through small openings randomly drilled in the thick wall. It is characterized. In particular, the front façade has a unique shape that is said to be shaped like the shell of a crab, and shows the free and sculptural modeling made possible by reinforced concrete. The roof shell draws a curve that goes down in the center with the east-west axis as the lower end, and this becomes the gradient of rainwater flow as it is, and it hangs down from the rain gutter shaped like an elephant's nose to the water collecting tub provided outdoors. It has become like. The main structural member is reinforced concrete , but the rubble of natural stone left over when it was destroyed in the war is also used for the foundation of thick walls. Depending on the part, the wall as thick as 3m is finished in white with stucco , and it looks as if its weight has been erased. Although it is not visible from the ground due to its curved shape, the thin roof realized by the shell structure is supported by the pillars built into the wall as if it were floating from the wall. From the inside, you can see that the wall and the roof are separated by a thin (10 cm) slit. Ceiling to be the roof lower surface is consciousness as a lump of concrete with remains heavy-free finish, and contrast with the Muscle of white wall is impressed the inside and the outside of the space, "show lightly the heavy wall, show heavy and light roof" It is one of the paradoxical architectural techniques of Le Corbusier. On the south front, a large wall with randomly arranged openings that take in outside light into the chapel rises with a gentle slope, and on the left side is a daylighting tower with a curved roof (the lower part is a small chapel). Is symbolically arranged, and the alcove between the two is the entrance to the chapel.

Interior space

Various primary color stained glass is deeply fitted in the small opening drilled in the huge south wall, and the diffusion of external light ( Tyndall phenomenon ) that enters from there creates an extremely mysterious space of light inside the chapel. Appear. The light reflected on the inner wall is soft. Due to the reflected external light supplemented from the upper part of the daylighting tower and the effect of the openings arranged in various places, the inside of the chapel is not dark enough to be isolated from the outside, and it is moderately bright as a space for prayer. .. With the entrance on the back, there is a pair of small chapels on the north side, and the upper part is also two daylighting towers, which characterizes the elevation from the north side.

In the opening on the upper right side of the wall in front of the altar, as the name of Notre Dame crowned in this chapel suggests, the statue of the Virgin Mary embedded in the glass window is arranged with the outside light in the background. , Overlooking the inside of the synagogue. Floor tiles are attached to the higher pew seats, and eight rows of wooden benches designed by Le Corbusier are lined up, but it is full when about 20 people sit.

Architectural evaluation

Unlike the expression of modernism that emphasized functionality and rationality based on the " Five Principles of Modern Architecture " that Corbusier insisted at Villa Savoye, etc., it is in the same category of religious architecture as pursuing new possibilities. However, it is considered to be a masterpiece of the late Corbusier, in contrast to the La Tourettee monastery, which was designed a little later. Although built in the 1950s, it is also rated as the first postmodern architecture.

[La Tourette Convent 1953 ]

Along with the chapel of Ronchamp, it is said to be a representative work of the late Le Corbusier, and it is also positioned as an important work of late modernism in the architectural tide. The exterior, which stands along the slopes of the hill, is rather austere and is designed as a rectangular with only vertical and horizontal straight lines , in contrast to the sculpture that emphasizes the appearance on the top of the hill using the free curves of Longshan. It is constructed as a powerful building that manifests the force of the slope. The "La Tourette Convent", which stands on a fairly steep slope, has a well-leveled floor, using a method called piloti, which was devised by Le Corbusier.
The pillars are getting longer and longer from the road facing the entrance, and finally there is a part where the long pillars for the second floor are used. It is a hollow square building that surrounds the courtyard with a simple concrete exterior.
On the lower floors, there are several rooms for communal living, and many characteristic glass windows allow outside light to enter and are very bright. The upper second floor is a living space , and many simple studio rooms are made. It is basically a gray concrete building, but many colorful colors are used for furniture, doors, and window frames. The door leading to the church is a rotating door that looks like a "plot twist" in a ninja mansion, and seems to separate it from a solemn space for prayer.

At the La Tourette Monastery, where Iannis Xenakis , who studied architecture and mathematics and was also active as a musician , participated as a disciple, the layout of the windows in the corridor feels very rhythmic and a space where you can feel the sequence is realized.

[ National Museum of Western Art ]

Le Corbusier was in charge of the design of the main building, and his disciples Kunio Maekawa , Junzo Sakakura, and Takamasa Yoshizaka cooperated in the implementation design and supervision. The new building was designed by Kunio Maekawa (Kunio Maekawa Architects). The main building was selected as one of the 100 best public buildings by the former Ministry of Construction in 1998 ( Heisei 10). Selected by DOCOMOMO JAPAN in 2003 It was selected as a modern movement architecture in Japan, and in 2007 (2007) it was designated as a national important cultural property as the "National Museum of Western Art Main Building". In addition, the front yard and garden were registered as a national registered monument (related to scenic spots) as the "National Museum of Western Art Garden" in 2009 (Heisei 21).

The current exterior wall is not the original at the time of construction, but was later renovated. Plane building square, Uchihanashi columnar stand concrete one by seven on each side. These columns are independent columns that stand apart from the wall on the second floor. The first floor was originally a piloti (stilt) structure, but now it has a glass outer wall, and most of the first floor is taken into the room. The central part of the 1st floor is a hall with a colonnade up to the light window on the roof. From the 1st floor to the 2nd floor, there is a gentle slope instead of stairs so that you can go up while looking at the sculptures.

The second floor is a corridor-shaped exhibition room that surrounds the central atrium hall. This is based on Le Corbusier's concept of "infinite growth architecture ", and it has a structure that allows the building to be added to the outside and the outside when expansion is needed in the future so that the snail grows. ing. The outer staircase on the right side facing the front of the main building was originally designed as an exit, but it has never been used and is off limits . The ceiling height of the inner part of the exhibition room on the 2nd floor is low. This low ceiling was provided as a space to take in natural light and adjust the brightness, but now it uses