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Antoni Gaudí i Cornet
Gaudi thought that being born into a family of coppersmiths became the basis for his own architect, grasping the space. Between 1873 and 1877, Gaudi studied architecture in Barcelona. He was also interested in history, economy, aesthetics and philosophy, and was reportedly enthusiastic about reading Violle-le-Duc's architectural encyclopedia from a friend. In parallel with his studies, he worked at several architectural firms , where he was involved in the decoration of Ciutadella Park in Barcelona and the monastery of Montserrat. He became a Spanish architect and was active mainly in Barcelona during the Modernisme ( Art Nouveau ) period from the 19th century to the 20th century. His works, including the Sagrada Familia (Church of the Holy Family), Park Guell (1900-1914) and La Pedrera (1906-1910), were registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984 as works by Antonio Gaudi. There is.
His architectural style is characterized by free and original modeling with motifs of nature, flora and fauna, and colorful and artistic decoration. Gaudi's architecture, which has such a unique and fantastic view of the world, gives an unforgettable impact once you see it. The simple and rational structure of natural dynamics has influenced many architects since then. The works left by Gaudi have been loved by people all over the world over time, and in 1984, the works were registered as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site.
The ideal society Gaudi was seeing | ETSURO SOTOO | TEDxNihonbashi
[Park Guell ・ La Pedrera Casa Batllo]
Park Guell → La Pedrera → Casa Batllo Gaudi Architecture
I went to the house "Casa Batllo" built by Gaudi! Relieved in a house full of kindness
His architecture was good at biological architecture, with many curves and detailed decorations , and his original design influenced many architects and artists. The design method consists of two aspects: unique structural mechanical rationality and narrative decoration. The decoration is not limited to formal ones, but realistically expresses plants, animals, monsters, humans, etc. "Beautiful shapes are structurally stable. Structures must be learned from nature," Gaudi believed that nature had the best shapes. The background comes from the experience of spending time in a village on the outskirts of Barcelona as a child and interacting with flowers and small creatures on the roadside.
Gaudi emphasized the model at the design stage and did not draw much blueprints. The blueprints are only the minimum necessary to be delivered to the government office. Many of his models and blueprints were burned down during the Spanish Civil War , but the construction of the current Sagrada Familia is underway, using the few materials that survived the burnout as clues.
[Sagrada Familia 1883]
It says the most famous in Gaudi's feat, Spain of Barcelona in the mosquito trick church of the Basilica of the Sagrada Familia cathedral. Gaudi incorporated new and innovative ideas into the design of the church one after another, and it was expected that it would take 300 years to complete. Construction was interrupted many times due to lack of funds and the death of Gaudi's relatives and friends, but Gaudi reviewed the architectural plan and design each time and thoroughly pursued its perfection .
The construction of the Sagrada Familia, which Gaudi undertook at the age of 31, eventually became his life, and in his later years he settled in the church and devoted himself to architecture. However, Gaudi was hit by a tram in 1926 and died at the age of 73. The Sagrada Familia has inherited Gaudi's will and is still being built by architects based on the few materials left behind.
Nowadays, in the days when there was no computer, we had to make models for imitation experiments by hand, but now that 3D printers and computer-based design technology are advancing, the progress is quite smooth. increase. It was said that the completion of the Sagrada Familia would take more than 300 years. However, it was announced that it will be completed in 150 years from the start of half the construction period. The video of the rendering, which was announced to be completed in 2026, far exceeded our imagination, and screamed from all over the world.
Casa means a house in Spanish, so in Japanese it is called " Visence House" or " Visence House". Casa Vicens is an important building in Barcelona , Spain , which Antoni Gaudi worked on for the first time when Gaudi became a full-fledged architect. It was built as a residence for Manuel Bisens, the president of a brick and tile factory, and his family, and is known for its beautiful molding of bricks and colorful tiles. Arranged like a chess board with white and green ceramic tiles , characterized by modulation combined with floral motif tiles, the whole is defined as linear architecture. In the lower part, these decorative elements form a horizontal line, and in the upper part, they are arranged vertically on a small pillar protruding on the plane of the façade, creating a composition with a dematerialized height. This dematerialization is accentuated by the towers at the corners of the façade, which are rotated at various levels to create a movement effect .
The interior space is a sign of the talent of young architects , especially in noblesse spaces and exotic smoking salons. The size of the site determined the location and direction of the building. Gaudi places the dwelling in the northeastern part of the land so that it sticks to the partition of the adjacent building, which is enough to create an arched garden surrounding the waterfall that refreshes the atmosphere inside the garden and the house. Space has been secured. Manuel Bisens died in 1895 and fell into the hands of Dr. Antonio Jobel in 1899. After renovation and extension, it was certified as a Spanish historical and art monument in 1969. In 2005, it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The appearance of this early work of Gaudi is influenced by the Mudejar style.
[Casa Botines 1891]
Casa means a house in Spanish, so in Japanese it is "House of Botines" or "House of Botines". Modernisme building in Spain . It was built between 1891 and 1892 by Antoni Gaudi's design. It is used as the head office of Kaha Espana, a local savings bank.
Gaudi wanted to pay tribute to Leon at Casa Botines. As a result, he gave the building a medieval atmosphere and numerous neo-Gothic features. The building consists of four floors, a basement and an attic. In addition, a tower is installed at the corner of the building, increasing the neo-Gothic feel. A moat was created around the two façades for ventilation and lighting of the basement. This concept was repeated at the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. Gaudi placed the owner's residence on the second floor. They are accessed by separate doors on the façade next to and behind the building. There are rental properties on the 3rd and 4th floors, and a company office on the 1st floor. The main entrance to the building is lined with a wrought-iron inscription bearing the company's name and a stone statue of St. George defeating the dragon. When the building was being restored in 1950, workers discovered a lead tube containing a Gaudi-signed original plan under the sculpture and a newspaper clipping of that era. On the ground floor, Gaudi was the first to use cast iron columns with a frame structure. This did not require bearing walls and allowed for more open planning . Unlike Gaudi's previous project, the façade of Casa de los Botines has a structural role. On a sloping roof, six skylights supported by iron girders illuminate and ventilate the attic. The structure is supported by a complex wooden frame.
[ Crypt of Colonia Guell Church 1898]
It is a church built in Spain. "Colonies (= Colonia)" is a word that means "colonial state", "Community", Guell is a wide area of land, such as community workers can live, as habitable workers working in the factory is close to the workplace , Houses, schools, hospitals, etc. were also built on the premises. The Colonia Guell Church for worship was built in this complex. In 2005, it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site (cultural heritage). In 1914, Gaudi retired from construction and left it to his assistants to concentrate on the Sagrada Familia Basilica. In 1915, the semi-basement was completed and used as a church. Then a temporary roof was installed, but construction was completely suspended in 1916. It became a parish church from 1955. The upper layer is still unfinished . It has a two-story structure consisting of a semi-basement floor and an upper church. Since the upper part was not completed, it was diverted to a church. The cupola ceiling is fully adopted, and the height of the outer shell is about 40m. The interior of the crypt has an egg-shaped plane , with four basalt pillars in the center, connected by arches. The ribs that support the vault extend from this central structure, and the force is transmitted from the inside to the outside to the colonnade that works in the center and further to the peripheral wall. There is a large window on the wall, and yellow, blue, green and rosy stained glass are set in a petal-shaped frame. A gentle space is produced by the light leaking from them. It is a cave- like space created by sloping columns and walls, rough-cut stones, and the dazzling colors of light and shadow. Without using any numbers or equations to design the slopes of the columns and walls , Gaudi spent 10 years experimenting. The experimental device is an "upside-down hanging model" with only strings and weights. Gaudi thought that a net-like thread with several weights attached and the shape drawn by the net turned upside down was a natural and durable structural form against vertical weighting. For craftsmen who suspected that the building might collapse during construction, they removed their scaffolding and proved the safety of the structure (this was the correct answer mechanically, because it is mechanically stable). It is the catenary curve itself that is widely used today).
It is interesting to note the many diverse material types and sources that Gaudi used over and over again in the first phase of this church. Basalt and limestone, various bricks, smelted slag, ceramics, glass, wrought iron, etc. are combined with textures and colors to achieve a clever integration of the building and its surroundings. Both the interior space and the exterior of the chapel boast excellent architectural quality. Gaudi presents us with a proclamation of archaeological architecture that understates and emotionally expresses the sublime and inseparable harmony between architecture and applied arts. A unique space with an atmosphere reminiscent of a sacred place, an unmistakable real work, one of Antoni Gaudi's finest works. The worship chair has a distinctive shape because it is designed by Gaudi. At the time of design, the material was to be designed with cheap bricks, but the pillars that support the tower are heavily loaded, so hard basalt was used. Steel beams were used where the floor height could not be obtained.
A park in Barcelona , Spain, with a panoramic view of the city of Barcelona. It was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The original purpose was to build a new residential area in Barcelona inspired by the British model "Garden City". It was a project to sell 60 lots of homes for bourgeois families in Barcelona. That purpose did not come true.
The land of the entire town was not only vast but also on steep slopes , and it was necessary to have multiple entrances to the new town. At this main gate, we built two attractive gates and a large staircase. A large garden-like staircase full of decoration leads to a large portico (a hall of multi-column architecture). This hall was designed to host a market.
On the roof of the hall is an observation square overlooking the city of Barcelona, surrounded by wavy prefabricated concrete benches decorated with ceramic trencadís. It was planned to become an amphitheater and enjoy the theater.
Always faithful to the principles, Gaudi takes advantage of the characteristics of each location in a fascinating way. Carefully study the terrain of the sloping mountains, devise roads and bridge routes that are convenient for each house, and excavate accordingly to minimize the impact and use the optimal method adapted to the landscape. We have succeeded in proceeding with the development. A great architect with a deep understanding of coexistence with nature, Gaudi predicted the future needs of the townspeople and built a water tank under the front hall to collect rainwater to maintain the town's vegetation. I made it possible. Stormwater is stored in a cistern by a unique drainage system that runs through large pillars in the New Dorian style. Stigma, we support the concrete blocks that form the arched ceiling decorated with train Cadiz.
Casa means a house in Spanish, so in Japanese it is called " Batlló 's house" or " Batlló's house". One of the buildings by Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona , Spain. It was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
At the request of the textile company Giuseppe Ballho y Casanovas, Gaudi renovated the mansion. In this renovation, Gaudi added a fifth floor and basement to the building, expanded the entrance hall, rebuilt the stairs and interior walls, brought a curvilinear design to each room, and decorated it with tiles and stained glass. The crushed tiles and glass that decorate the exterior use waste from a local company. There are various theories about the modeling of this mansion. First, the climax rounded part of the roof, like a dragon from the fact that looks like a back, Catalonia of the patron saint is Sant Jordi is the interpretation that has traces the legend of the dragon getting rid of. According to this interpretation, the tower is a spear held by a saint. The Casa Batllo, facade stone pillar of bone , but there is also nicknamed "bone house" because it conjures up, and this bone is also to be understood that the bones of those who fell victim of the Dragon According to the dragon extermination theory There is.
The second interpretation is that the roof is likened to an Arlecan hat, the balcony of the façade is a mask , and the mosaic of crushed tiles of various colors (Trancadis) by Josep Maria Jujol represents the confetti of the festival. It is a theory. Inside the mansion, Gaudi effectively takes in natural light and changes the shade of the tiles. There is also a theory that it was created in the image of an undersea cave by the effect of these lights and colors. Of the furniture designed by Gaudi for Casa Batllo, one desk and one bench can be seen in the mansion. The rest of the work is in the collection of the Catalunya Museum.
[ Casa Mila 1905 ]
Casa means a house in Spanish, so in Japanese it is called " Mira 's house" or " Mira's house". One of the buildings by Antoni Gaudi in Barcelona, Spain. It was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
La Pedrera is a straight line does not have the part at all buildings have become, magnificent very impressive building is. It has an atmosphere like a sand dune or a wave of lava , and it is an architecture that is isolated from the general style of modern architecture. The wavy curve of the exterior was created in the image of the Mediterranean Sea. Each balcony has a soft shape while using a material called iron. The ceiling, walls, and everywhere on the inside are rippling, and you are surrounded by the depth of the seabed. The rooftop is lined with uniquely processed chimneys and staircases, which can be likened to the moon or a dream landscape.
This building can be regarded as a sculpture rather than a normal building. There are criticisms that it lacks practicality, but it cannot be denied that it has overwhelming artistry. Ironically, the citizens of Barcelona at the time of construction considered La Pedrera to be an ugly building and gave it the nickname "La Pedrera", but today it is one of Barcelona's most historic buildings.
The interior is now a museum of Gaudi architecture. As of January 2009, you can also visit the interior dwellings and rooftops for a fee of 9.5 euros. The attic structure of La Pedrera is supported by many bricks. The two central holes extend from the courtyard on the ground floor and were specially designed by Gaudi to allow natural light to enter every room of this large building.
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