architect. Born in Kanagawa prefecture. Graduated from the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo in 1959. Completed the doctoral course at the Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Tokyo in 1964. In the same year, he was an assistant professor in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Toyo University. In 1967, based on the social situation at that time, he published a book "What is possible in architecture" that pursued the possibilities of architecture with a detailed theoretical system, and attracted widespread attention not only in the architectural world. Here, the "theory of Yuanatai (want enabled)" to "closed a hole (hole) in the space" that envisages the building from the point of view has been deployed in the detailed form. Works that embody this "theory of perforated bodies" include Ito's residence (1967) and Keisho Kindergarten (1968, Tokyo), which are the actual virgin works of Hara. In 1969, he was an assistant professor at the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo. Since 1970, started design activities in collaboration with Atelier Phi Building Research Institute. In 1982, he was a professor at the Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo.
In 1997 (Heisei 9), retired from the University of Tokyo. In the same year, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo. [Yasuhiro Minami]
"What is possible in architecture" (1967)
"Space <From Function to Aspect>" (1987)
"Buried a city in a dwelling-discovery of words" (1990)
"Teaching of the Village 100" (1998, Shokokusha)
"Journey to the Village" (Iwanami Shinsho)
"Dwelling Set Theory" 1-5 (1973-1979) "
"Reflexive dwelling" Hiroshi Hara's residence
A work 20 years ago. It is a house with a symmetrical shape. Around this time, I was building a series of homes called reflective dwellings. My house has a north-south axis, and light actually comes in along that axis. Then, the symmetry is broken by the light and the shadow. I planned it in the form of a phenomenon in which the symmetry collapses in one day. Therefore, the axis of symmetry is aligned with the light once a day. We planned the room so that the change in the temporal state matches the original symmetry plan, and the light and shadow have the moment when the symmetry matches perfectly. Light actually comes in from the top light through it, called the second roof. At night, that part is illuminated, but the room where people happen to be is the entire lighting, and the surrounding rooms are accidentally illuminated. And that creates the state of the entire living room. In the summer, the garden is covered with leaves for natural air conditioning, and in the winter, the leaves fall and the sun shines.
"Power to call"
Ⅰ Multi-layer structure / Forest transportation / Notes for multi-layer structure theory
Ⅱ Reflective dwelling / Burying the city in the dwelling / About line target planning / Chicellone to form
Ⅲ Untouched space / Buried / Scene / Departure / Downward / Inverted /
Ⅳ Perforated / perforated theory and design / floating thought
■ Arendt's "The Human Condition"
By separating the boundaries that separate the "private territory" from the "public territory," humans were able to achieve both animal and human life. However, since modern times, this boundary has disappeared.
The "social domain" has swallowed both "private" and "public" as social elements. All families are counted as members of the "social realm", "property" becomes "wealth" that flows in exchange for money, and all life activities that support the natural circulation process and animal life are the economic activities of society. Became a part of.
As a result, the work and activities that support the "public realm," that is, the creative and free acts that are human, are deprived of the labor that supports life and economic activities, and humans just survive the days and are like animals. It has become a working "working animal".
The "private territory" that supports the free world of human beings and is engaged in relation to "nature" is swallowed by the "social territory" dominated by capitalism, and almost everything related to human beings is dominated by economic principles. It has been done.
This is one of Arendt's criticisms of modern society.
■ Dwellings deprived of nature by the city
The binary opposition between "house" and "city" is the main axis of this essay.
"City = social territory" has deprived "dwelling = private territory" of "nature", that is, the circulation of resources that are the food and source of human life and the relationship with natural phenomena. Before modern times, each family secured food while engaged in agriculture, hunting, and livestock farming, and lived in food, clothing, and shelter. There may have been mountains and forests in the territory. They are outside the human world and are not necessarily on the side of humans (disasters, etc.), but "nature" remains the source of human life.
The author points out that the deprivation of it has eliminated the human imagination (think of it as a reality for a normal life) from the "dwelling". "City = social territory" has been reduced to individual elements, including family members, and swallowed into economic principles. Humans are forced to be animals that work earnestly in a homogeneous space. In order for a "dwelling" to be good, it is necessary to regain the relationship with the deprived "nature" from the "city". Let's regain the relationship with "nature" and the interpretation of "nature" (this is called "[socialization]" by the author) in some way.
■ The substance of a dwelling with the potential of nature
As long as we live on the premise of dependence on the "city", it will be a heavy burden to return everything that has been deprived to the "dwelling". Rich people can be self-sufficient only with their own land and servants, but ordinary people do not. It is a proof of the existence of the potential of "dwelling" (the above "potential") that cannot be reduced to the element of "city". Each entity is the smallest component with the potential of "nature", and the city is completed by the discrete relationships between these entities. A boring society with no potential If human society can explain everything in a harmonious manner by economic principles, and everything goes by in a fixed order from the right like a conveyor belt, in this society Humans are like robots, they can't create anything, they don't feel anything. Not only land but also families are bought and sold by money, and each individual's individuality is expressed only by economic value. However, looking at the actual society, "houses" and families actually exist. In other words, it is an existence that is out of schedule and cannot be recovered by the "dwelling" and the family due to economic principles, and has the potential as a source for creative acts.
"Dwelling = private territory" has the potential to have a relationship with "nature" as its source. It has been largely stripped by the "city = social territory", but it still remains undeprived.
■ Method of burying
Realistically, light, then air and soil, and a few vegetation are left behind. The city reserve method at hand expresses the city's desire for these remaining elements. Consider a dwelling that can sensitively catch the remaining "natural fragments" (light, air, soil, vegetation) of the "nature" excluded by the city. Thereby, it is possible to "maintain an equilibrium state". The "Urban Buried Law" actively incorporates "nature". It is not normal to voluntarily take in "nature", which is the object to be controlled. However, what is important here is to incorporate the appropriate amount of "nature" into the "dwelling", and under the circumstances where the "city" excludes "nature", the "urban reserve method" that makes up for the lack of "nature" is used. Appropriate.
"Reflective dwelling" Awazu residence
The "reflexive dwelling" is also being implemented at the "Awazu Residence", which was designed and completed in 1972. At night, the surrounding rooms are accidentally lit, creating the overall living room condition. He explained that in the summer, the garden is covered with leaves and is naturally air-conditioned, and in the winter, the leaves fall and the sun shines.
He is still developing design activities at "Hiroshi Hara + Atelier Phi Architectural Laboratory" based on the survey of villages around the world.
Hiroshi Hara Masahiro Matsumoto "House in Hayama"
"Teaching and Aspects of Villages"
In the 1970s, he conducted a survey of villages in more than 40 countries around the world, including Europe, Africa, and Central and South America, and developed his own ideas about cities and architecture based on his experiences and research. Hara seeks a way of knowing how to extract universal internationalism from individual regionalism through actual surveys of traditional villages, while applying a new architectural planning methodology that applies mathematical analysis. Investigated.
■ The concept of region
The word "region" has been around for a long time, but what came to have the meaning of today was born from a social movement around 1970. In the past, I used to insist on the style of the climate, called regionalism or regionalism, and regarded it as very folk. From that time on, there was a theory that a region's own culture and the identity of each place were needed, but from around 1970, the term region with a new modern meaning came out.
■ Village survey
He said that the basis of the concept of community was a medieval settlement in Europe. Le Corbusier uses it as an example to create the theory of the city. At that time, we didn't really know anything concretely and swallowed such a theory, but we still have to look at it from that point of view, and we don't know. There were a lot of facts that I didn't know what kind of thing there was, so I decided to go anyway. So, when I actually went there, I was surprised to meet a very wonderful village. That's why I continued the investigation for about 10 years.
Works during this period include the Tasaki Museum of Art (1986, Nagano Prefecture, AIJ Prize), Yamato International (1986, Tokyo, Murano Togo Prize), and Josai Elementary School, Naha City (1987). Around this time, he created the concept of "multi-layered structure," which was a further development of the "perforated body theory," and sought to reveal an ambiguous state by superimposing different dimensions. These trials are summarized as a "multi-layered model" at the Graz Minneapolis exhibition (1985-1986). In addition, Yamato International is one of the results that brought the multi-layered structural model to fruition in concrete architecture.
Tasaki Museum of Art 1986, Nagano Prefecture. AIJ Prize
This is the Tasaki Museum of Art in Karuizawa. In terms of time, it is a museum with a certain peculiarity. Museums are required to be relatively homogeneous in terms of protecting and exhibiting numerous works. Therefore, ordinary museums are open all year round, so there are limits to how they can be made. However, since this museum is located in Karuizawa, it is open only during the summer, and by exhibiting only the works of Mr. Tazaki alone, it is possible to build in accordance with the changes in nature.
For that reason, I made it while letting in outside light. We will create a light source without relying on artificial lighting. When considering the roof as a light reflector, the cloud-shaped roof aimed at the effect of making the transparent air of Karuizawa even more transparent. As you can see when you actually go, this area is bright enough. And there is a brighter atmosphere in this museum. There are various forms of reflection and light mixture. A new indoor condition can be created by the planning method created as a mixer of light coming in from various angles. Can it be called a kind of fusion of light? We also try to allow light to enter directly into areas other than the exhibition space. It is a work that considers the temporal change of the form that appears in the room.
The cloud-shaped roof must be waterproof. The snow is not so much, but I actually turned on the heater for the phenomenon that the roof freezes, and tried to plan the details and rain gutters. If you look at the shape of the rain gutter, you can see a part of it.
Yamato International 1986, Tokyo. Murano Togo Prize
"Elevation as a device" in which the entire façade is formed by scraping off the surface composed of twelve aluminum surfaces and glass surfaces, and the overall change in light is amplified by making the façade three-dimensional. I thought. It is very sensitive to the brightness caused by changes in time and sky conditions, such as when the sun rises or is blocked by clouds.
When the light is weak and there is no shadow, it feels vague. It will be golden when reflecting the setting sun. It is observed that light causes halation in the surface with the change of time, but it does not happen for 365 days, and it is not rare that the phenomenon occurs neatly and graphically. I think. At dusk, when the sky turns bright red, you can see that the diffused reflections increase to the feeling that the city is burning, and the shape disappears. When thinking about how to make such an architecture, a kind of responsiveness occurs between nature and architecture. For example, the back façade. It's very plain. It corresponds to the morning light. Overall, it is heavy to say that we planned the responsiveness of light.
Naha City Josai Elementary School 1987
It is a school that puts the village of Okinawa straight. Each room has a top light and an air vent window, and each classroom has one roof. Ventilation planning is important because the climate is relatively calm. It has an open school style that is integrated with the garden and has no walls throughout.
The village of Okinawa is a separate building due to the good living environment. People's movements are designed so that traffic from building to building, that is, various routes, occur there. It's not as rigorous as planning temporality in people's movements. In this elementary school as well, the walls were removed in a way that various routes could occur. In a sense, it may be said that we tried to fully develop the concept of a place where architecture is a "place".
Since it is a hot place, it does not require much light from the top light in the room, but it is intended to cause a sympathetic change in the ceiling when the light shines in.
"Space <from function to aspect>"
Based on this "multi-layered structure model", Hara eventually created a unique concept of "aspect". According to Hara, "aspect" is a new concept that is opposed to "function" that has continued to drive modern architecture. It also ambiguous (fuzzy) ones, ambiguous things, a concept including irregular ones. Hara, like this, and the logic of the pursuit by carving and polishing of the word (carving and polishing), while aligning month exploration of the methodology through the building, has been engaged in a thought by the close association of the two. The culmination of this is "Space <From Function to Aspect>" (1987), which won the Suntory Prize for Social Sciences.
Space <From function to aspect> by Hiroshi Hara site:
"Homogeneous space theory" is a theory of recognition of the current situation.
Bricolage about "part and whole theory" is the set-theoretic basis of spatial understanding. "Boundary theory" is a consideration of fields and domains, and explains how to grasp space from these two viewpoints. "From function to aspect" is the direction of contemporary architecture, and "<non-non-non> and Japanese spatial tradition" is an example of the concrete development of set theory.
"500M x 500M x 500M" (1992)
After the 1980s, he began to actively participate in overseas competitions on the theme of cities, such as the Media Park City Planning Initiative in Cologne, Germany (1988, the highest award), and the Montreal International Urban Design Competition in Canada (1990). He has achieved many achievements such as the highest award). At the same time as proposing such a concrete city plan, we are also pursuing a compact city model through the project "500M x 500M x 500M" (1992). These activities and thoughts were extended to architecture on an urban scale in the 1990s, and eventually became large such as Shin Umeda City (1993, Osaka), JR Kyoto Station (1997), Sapporo Dome (2002). It was embodied as a large-scale work.
A large-scale urban residential area with a maximum total floor area of 2,500 ha. It can accommodate nearly 100,000 people in a centralized manner, and three-dimensionally accommodates the facilities required by today's 100,000-person cities. The problems are: 1) a concentrated urban load may occur, which may have an impact on the existing environment, and 2) a huge construction cost is required. Innovative advantages are: 1 Many people (children, old people, sick, physically handicapped, foreigners, etc.) can live in the city itself, 2 can prevent urban sprawl that destroys the natural environment, if built in a redevelopment area A large open space can be obtained, 3 it is possible to move to any two points in about 10 minutes, so it is possible to drastically solve today's social problems such as the elderly problem, the labor problem of housewives, and the education problem, 4 Temporary construction (lease) When used as an architecture), it is possible to drastically redevelop an existing city by temporarily relocating it. The "500M x 500M x 500M cube" should be planned with a whole new concept, and what is displayed here is a very conceptual planning scheme.
Umeda Sky Building 1986, Nagano Prefecture. AIJ Prize
It is a connected skyscraper in Shin-Osaka. The first idea is to create an aerial city by connecting conventional skyscrapers. At the same time, I also had the intention of blending the building into nature over time. Since it is an office building, there are many parts of the homogeneous space, and in the sense of subdividing it, I thought about supporting the aerial garden with four towers.
In line with the changes in facial expressions over time in the buildings I have explained so far, I intend to extend the concrete route, that is, the route that will be the basic concept when we think about time, into the air. increase. If an aerial city could be created in the future, it would be the publicization of routes in the air. At first glance, the modern skyscraper cities in New York, Hong Kong, or the west exit of Shinjuku seem to be three-dimensional, but in reality they are all three-dimensional dead-end streets, and when you climb the building, take the elevator. I have to come down again. The route in all three-dimensional directions is a dead end. If you close the root door, you can easily manage it. However, I wondered if a city was such a thing, and that such an architectural style itself limited the possibilities of the city, so I envisioned a city that was not a dead end and tried to realize its tools. The tool stand is full of first. The building was created with the idea of setting routes such as aerial bridges, aerial elevators, and aerial escalators, and using them to prepare a series of tools for the aerial city.
Kyoto Station 1986, Nagano Prefecture. AIJ Prize
This is Kyoto Station, which is currently under construction. The height is less than 60 meters, but it extends horizontally about 470 meters. By generating various routes, I create the terrain that I call a "geographical concourse". We plan to build a large glass roof in the center of the route for everyone to walk freely. This hill-like terrain is made like a village. It is caused by the scenery of Iida City, Nagano Prefecture. Architecture waiting for the scene of the projected world "landscape".
Various routes that look like a concourse are connected to an aerial bridge. The escalator and the grand staircase that go to the rooftop are the main axes of the route. It is an aerial route of the part of the terrain that becomes stepped. The theater is also designed as a route, with a diagonal bridge in the air serving as spectators' seats. Also, unlike the escalator of the department store so far, the escalator that penetrates the building diagonally is made as a road. By making a multi-layered plan with congested routes in this way, we hope that a building with a wide range of behavioral possibilities will be realized. If you expand it, a huge aerial city will be constructed as one concept. Cities can be made up of many things, but historically they can all be buried. I think the important thing is what kind of change will occur there. I think it is possible to think of a city that has a mechanism to disconnect from the past by incorporating the concept of burst.
Extraterrestrial architecture (1992)
Such thoughts have been extended to space and summarized as a project called Extraterrestrial Architecture (1992), which examined the possibilities of extraterrestrial architecture. Hara is also an excellent architect, and from the laboratory called Hara School, Riken Yamamoto, Kiyoshi Sey Takeyama, Kengo Kuma, Kazuhiro Kojima (1958-2016). Many architects and researchers are growing up, including.
As we have talked about, we, who have literally thought about "the possibilities of architecture", have been given the opportunity to think about "architecture of the universe" by the Moon and Planetary Society. Then, we examined it with space scientists who are actually flying artificial satellites. The moon runs around the earth, and I created various images corresponding to some of its locations. I will introduce a part of it.
It is an earthly orbital ring that can be seen from the earth as the universe. It reflects the concept of a base that will be a station on Earth. It is to create one space with sanitary scrap. It is a waste disposal of flying things. It rotates and creates while generating gravity, but according to the people of space engineering, it is technically very difficult.
A base is built on the surface of the moon, a spaceship that moves between planets, a station that orbits the moon, and other tools, but the time on the moon is completely different from that on the earth. The conditions for living on the moon are extremely difficult. For example, even if the temperature difference is different between Hinata and Hikage, it is about 300 degrees. In the Sahara Desert on the earth, the daily temperature difference is 50 degrees, so it is about 6 times.
It is such a space shelter, but strangely, considering that the material is a block made from a material like soil on the moon <Memoris>, the design goes back to Mesopotamian architecture, that is, sun-dried bricks. I think it will be very similar to the architecture of.
For long stays, living underground is the most stable. Given that, I feel that it brings a correlation, similar to a pit-house in China. Of course there is no air on the moon. It can be said that such a thing theoretically turns by shining light on the wings of a device such as a windmill and colliding with the photons.
Since there is no resistance when actually running in outer space, it is rather difficult to move. After all, basically, by throwing something behind you, you have to think that it will move in reaction to it, which can be difficult. Space is the path of travel, and I think it is very correct as shown in Kubrick's movie "2001: A Space Odyssey". However, we realized that it was difficult to overcome it.
I am keenly aware that the possibilities of our architecture are endless. Music-like architecture with time theory. When you think about it, thinking that there is a human being is basically in the form of possibility. There are multiple layers of thoughts and plans for the future at the same time. I think this is very important. When planning a building, the very existence of human beings appears there. What kind of conditions must the building have at that time? That is the path we will consider from now on, and I think that it will open up the future of architecture by developing full-scale architectural theory and design that incorporates time.
Sapporo Dome (Sapporo Dome, the British universal: Sapporo Dome), the Japan of Hokkaido, Sapporo, Toyohira-ku, Hitsujigaoka in the domed stadium . The facility is owned by Sapporo City and is operated and managed by Sapporo Dome Co., Ltd., a third sector funded by Sapporo City and companies in the business world in Hokkaido.
It is the only completely indoor natural turf soccer stadium in Japan. The world's first adoption of the "hovering system", a natural turf soccer field movement method. This system makes it possible to use both a natural turf ground for soccer and an artificial turf ground for baseball. Received the "44th BCS Prize" and the 2002 " Red Brick Architecture Award ". It is used as the home stadium of the Japan Professional Soccer League (J League) Hokkaido Consadole Sapporo and the home ground of the Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters of the Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) Pacific League. Previously, the professional baseball masters league Sapporo Ambitious was also based in Sapporo Dome. In addition, various events and international competitions are held. It has been nicknamed "Hiroba" since its opening, and as of 2017, it is also the only home ground in the Pacific League that has not introduced naming rights.
Hiroshi Hara Postwar Japanese Housing Legend
Forest Gap Oyama Guest House 2001
This guest house was planned in the forest at the foot of Daisen, Yonago City, Tottori Prefecture.
The site is in a grove of cherry blossoms and pine trees. The trees maintain their own balanced spacing with trunks rising towards the sky and overgrown branches and leaves. Its appearance is beautiful. The trees are the legitimate inhabitants of this place. Building a building in this place requires sufficient dialogue with the site, and it was thought that there would be symbiosis beyond that. The placement plan is proceeding accordingly. Consider arranging the building while leaving as much existing trees as possible and securing as much living space as possible in the gap. "A form that coexists with the forest" was the cornerstone of the design. After that, we carefully investigated and analyzed the sections where the living space could be constructed, and selected a method of connecting each functional space with a short connecting path. The roof is sloped according to the opening and direction of the tree branches to ensure effective sunlight intake. Here in Oyama, there is nearly 2 meters of snow in winter. Therefore, the living space is on the second floor, and the piloti architecture is selected. Furthermore, in consideration of ventilation in the summer, consideration was given to protecting the indoor environment from humidity and temperature from the ground. As a result, a comfortable home has been realized throughout the four seasons. The forest seen from each room is infinitely deep. "Ming (red) Akira (white) vague (awo) dark (black)" -It seems to be called one-day color. How colorful are the colors of the day drawn by the changing seasons? I would be happy if you could feel the rich flow of time carved by the forest by spending time in this building. And even if this building ends its life someday in the distant future, this forest will continue to live. I think that "a form that coexists with the forest" can fulfill its original meaning at this time.